12:23 PM

my tv options...

Tv is the best entertainer for all the people in the world. Especially, my grandparents will enjoy only watching television programs. They have no other entertainment in this age. In my home, apart from them, we watch the TV programs very rarely.
So rather than getting a cable connection which telecasts all the channels, I thought that choosing only the channels that they watch would be a better option. Nowadays, there are many satellite TV channels providing the channels in packages. So, I decided to go for them and I chose this TV channel company and got the program package for my grandparents.
I chose a sports package for myself, so I can enjoy sports. If you want to go for packages feel free to visit this site and get one.

12:22 PM

Iraq suspended

World football’s governing body FIFA has announced its decision to suspend the Iraqi football association until further notice “because of government interference”. “in accordance with FIFA statues, the clubs and representative teams of Iraq are no longer permitted to take part in international matches, whether friendly or competitive,” read a statement on the FIFA website on Friday.

12:18 PM

Iraq suspended

World football’s governing body FIFA has announced its decision to suspend the Iraqi football association until further notice “because of government interference”. “in accordance with FIFA statues, the clubs and representative teams of Iraq are no longer permitted to take part in international matches, whether friendly or competitive,” read a statement on the FIFA website on Friday.

7:20 PM

Shahid kapur

My favorite actor waqs shahid kapur. I would like to share a few things that I know about shahid kapur. He was a non-smoker, till the end of his four year old relationship with kareena . At first his friends and colleagues passed it off as a work-related stress but they were worried when the actor seemed addicted to nicotine. He began smoking while shooting for his film kismet connection in Canada during the crisis in his personal relationship. Now he became a chain smoker because of that. I hope he will get off from his pressure soon.

7:16 PM

house in Moscow

Hi everybody, its been a long time, I have written post in my blog. Recently I have got an opportunity to go to Moscow. So before going, I would like to settle things there in Moscow. I will be there for at least three months, so I cannot afford a five star restaurant there. I need a rental house with all the facilities nearby. I searched the Google for Apartment rental services in Moscow based on my needs and I found this Moscow Apartments list for daily rentals to be very useful. I will use the internet very often, so I need an internet connection with a good speed. As I am using a laptop, it would be better if I get the Wi-Fi internet connection within the apartment campus. I feel very much comfortable with that. They have wide collection of houses with various designs to match the taste of all kinds of people. Apart from design and internet connection, all the basic facilities to lead a common life are provided by them. So if you are in search of a decent house in Moscow, you can visit Apartment for short term near Kremlin for getting one. I hope that this post of mine would have been useful for you and have pleasant weekend. Take care.

5:48 PM

swimwear for you...

Hi everybody, a very good evening to you all. Exercise is the best way to keep the body health and fit. Swimming is the best exercise that everyone can practice. Swimming twice a week helps the people to avoid the doctor. In this post, I would like to discuss a online store for swimwear. The swimsuits available in this store are very much attractive and also very much comfortable to swim. They have lots of models and all these models are brand new with fascinating style. Apart from swim suits they also sell bathing suits for all women. They have hundreds of gift cards for the benefit of the customers. If you are a lucky guy, you can get prizes on your purchase. For getting prizes all you need to do is just fill in your details and get registered yourself. When comes to shipping, the product will be delivered to the respective addresses within five working days. The shipping cost is also very much cheaper compared to other online stores. The maximum rate for shipping is just20 dollars. You can select the product through the website and pay using credit card. You have another option too. Just dial them or mail them. The product is delivered to home. Have a nce weekend.

6:47 PM

JAMES FENIMIRE COOPER-2

James Fenimore Cooper was the second American to make a success of a writing career. He followed Washington Irving to Europe in order to establish the English and Continental rights to his novels and to give his daughters the advantages of European schooling.

In his early novels, Cooper reveals an enthusiasm for the outdoors, dangerous action, and a consuming zeal for what he termed “American ideas.” With the even greater success of The Last of the Mohicans (1826), perhaps the best and certainly the most widely popular of his Native American tales, his avocation as a novelist became his profession.

3:48 PM

kill termite problems...

Hi good evening everybody. Termites, I hope this might be a biggest headache for most of you in the house. It is very difficult to get off from these termites because we cannot able to spot the location exactly in the initial stages. Without our knowledge it will cause damage to all the wooden parts in our home, and also to our home. Finally when it finishes it works, our house will look no more beautiful. I also have the same problem in my house and tried hard to get off those termites. But I cannot succeed, and then my colleague told me about Los Angeles Termite, which protects the houses, offices and all the building form the termite problems. I called them and handed over my termite problem to them. Now I do not have a termite problem in my home and it looks very beautiful. Thanks to Los Angeles Termite. They have well trained people to deal with these termites, and they take extra care to make the house look more beautiful than it was before. It was the added service gave by Los Angeles Termite. The cost is also very much affordable compared to other companies. Once you have visited the Los Angeles Termite, you would not get the termite problem from then.

9:43 AM

VICTOR HUGO-3

This exile opened for Victor Hugo a second career as a poet. He wrote Chastisements (1852), a political satire; Contemplations (1856); the mighty Legend of the Centuries (1859-1883); a vast collection of epic myths and episodes, with its weird and powerful prelude; The End of Satan (1886) and its philosophical conclusion God (1891). God’s range, power, and it are in sharp contrast to Hugo’s airy songs of Streets and Woods (1865). In the novel Les Miserables (1862) Hugo painted a great historical fresco and a powerful sermon, in the framework of a popular romance. Toilers of the Sea (1866), with fine descriptions and a symbol of evil (the octopus), is like Herman Melville’s Moby Dick. The Man Who Laughs, in which his riotous fantasy reached the limits of the baroque and even of the grotesque, is also notable.

12:27 AM

enjoy blogging

Hi everybody, today the bloggers are increasing at a rapid pace. Initially blogging concept was started to share the thoughts of the individuals to everyone in the world, similar to online journals. Later on some people used these bloggers to advertise their company based on the quality of the bloggers. The bloggers also get paid for writing their genuine reviews about the advertisers. Now there are lots of intermediate websites available to connect the bloggers and the advertisers. If you are the business man and want to advertise on blogs, well, you have the option of payingpost website. They are the right platform to connect the advertisers and the bloggers. They will review the blogs very carefully and will approve only the best quality blogs, which enhances the advertisers business. Its popularity is increasing very fast. My friend who is having a loggers account in paying post receives many number of offers and earning a lot of money. I also have submitted my blog and waiting for their approval. If you are a blogger, I would advise you to join their community as soon as possible and start earning. If you ar ea business man, then advertise your product through them at a very low cost. Happy blogging.

12:52 AM

WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY…3

During these same years, he also wrote a number of separately published tales, satires, and Christmas stories, of which the most famous is The Rose and the Ring (1855).

In 1851, Thackeray delivered lectures on The English Humorist of the Eighteenth Century, which he repeated in the United States between November 1851 and April 1852. His tour was a great success. Socially, it won him a host of new friends, financially, it partly allayed his fear that he might leave his daughters in poverty. A second lecture series, on The Four Georges, was also given in America between November 1855 and April 1856. In 1860 Thackeray became editor of Cornhill Magazine, to which he contributed Lovel the Widower and The Roundabout Papers.

12:53 AM

insure, secure...

Many people use the term life insurance as the best saving in their life. If you are one among them, then you are very lucky to see this post. You can avail the term life insurance from the web site which got a place in this very post. To know all about the term life insurance, please check out the web site and get a clear idea about it and various plans available for your needs and requirements. No matter in which mode you save your money. All you have to ensure is to secure your future. Good luck.

12:53 AM

EDGAR ALLAN POE

The macabre and troubled genius who invented the horror genre in fiction, Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, the second son of Elizebeth Arnold, an English actress, and David Poe, a Baltimore law student who turned to acting and disappeared in 1810. Edgar was taken into the home of John and Frances Keeling Allan, a childless couple, by whom he was treated as a son, although he was never formally adopted. The tension between him and John Allan culminated in a violent quarrel, and in 1827, Poe left”home” and the next month turned up in Boston.
Poe’s writing career can be said to have begun in earnest only after his expulsion from west point in 1831.

11:46 PM

make money online

Hello everybody, most of the people are losing their jobs today, due to the economic crisis in the world. Getting another job is also a very difficult task for the people as most of the companies are running in a very less marginal profit. As a result most people are trying for an alternative to their existing jobs. The first alternative that comes to everyone’s mind is the job that can be done through internet and online jobs. One of my friends lost his job recently because of this economic crisis. He tried another job for two months, but unable to get one, so he thought of doing online jobs till the recession gets over. I advised him to go to this money making online website to earn for his living. Now he is earning a lot through that money making website. As it is a online portal, you can use this website as a part time job also. They will provide you with the demo video of how to make money online through this website. They also have other tools which help you in making lots of money. You might think there are number of websites that helps people earning money online without much effort. The biggest advantage of this website is that, it ensures the money for your pocket. Another advantage is that, this website does not ask any registration fees from you, so that it makes you earn without any investment. do not hesitate to visit this website which will make you feel regret for missing a golden opportunity of making money online. I hope that this post would be useful for you and enjoy money making online. Once you start earning here, then you will advertise this website for the sake of other people as I did. Have a happy living.

12:19 AM

feel gifted...

Gifts play a vital role in making any occasion a beautiful one. An occasion could be made as the most memorable one by giving gifts to everyone. Gifts are always special and they promote a special feel between the person who is giving a gift and the person who is receiving it. You can easily become a special person to someone by surprising them by giving gifts to them. When we decide to gift someone, we will be put up in to confusion about the type of gift to give. Many people will get a dilemma about which gift to give. Some people might get reaction in the opposite way than the expected one since they give a gift which is never liked by the person who receives it.

Well, you are no longer needed to worry about choosing gifts and purchasing them. I have given the link of a web site, which will save you from gifting worries and make you lifted by providing numerous types of gifts with huge variety and good quality. No matter which gift you are searching for. If you are in search of gifts, then this is the place where you have to land yourself. You can get any types of gifts here. The designer gifts , anniversary gifts are to name a few from the list. In addition to all these, you can also go for special personalized gifts , which will make the receiver to get happiness and excitement to the extreme. To get additional information about the gifts and to get a better picture about it, you can visit the web site once and clarify all your doubts regarding gifts. This gift web site is a gift for us which makes our happy moments a gifted one.

12:19 AM

ALFRED TENNYSON:1

Alfred Tennyson was born in Somersby, a village in Lincolnshire, near the east coast of England, and took up poetry at Cambridge. During the early 1830s, there was a death of good poetry, so there was unusual critical interest in the works of younger poets such as Elizabeth Barrett and Tennyson. Tennyson’s collections, the Poems Chiefly Lyrical of 1830 and the Proems of 1832 (dated 1833), were exactingly reviewed. He published the two volumes of Poems of 1842 with which critics and public alike were impressed. The grave b blank verse and heroic mood of “Ulysses and brilliant word pictures and moral idealism of “Morte d’ Arthur” pointed forward to the Idylls of the King.

12:18 AM

over weight

The overweight problem gives more problems to us. It will affect us mentally and we will also lose our health from a good condition. With respect to health issues, we may get heart diseases, diabetes and many other problems which scare us all the time. We will be put up in to mental stress and depression because of the over weight. This is what the over weight makes us feel ill mentally. It is a very alarming problem on which we have to work hard and try to eliminate. Otherwise it will become as a global issue and this may lead to a global break down like the one which appeared recently in the world of economy. We should do something such that we can bring this problem in our control and save many people from becoming a victim of this over weight problem. It may be a slimming pill or some exercise or any thing. The result should lead us to a happier and healthier life.

10:23 AM

fix plumbing issues

Hi everybody, this post is regarding an online service which will makes your home better. Many services come through online today. Likewise, plumbing services also in to the show now. You can get Atlanta Plumber and San Diego Plumber through the web site which has been referred over here in this post. You can fix all kinds of plumbing issues by this company called Atlanta Plumbing. A home will remain sweet home when it has no problem in it. A home will turn sour when we get problems like electrical or plumbing issues. Make your home sweet by saving it from plumbing problems.

10:22 AM

VICTOR HUGO-4

Victor Hugo returning to France in 1871, he wrote Ninety Three (1873), a romance of the Revolution, and The Four Winds of the Spirit (1881), poems in lyrical, epic, satirical and dramatic form; being the best fruit of that almost juvenile productivity. A lover of children, he was revered as “the universal grandfather,” publishing The Art of Being a Grandfather in 1877.

Baudelaire acknowledge his supremacy, Alfred Tennyson called him “weird Titan, cloud-weaver of phantasmal hopes and fears,” and Andre Gide, the very antithesis of Hugo, had to confess: “Our greatest poet, alas!” and in later year withdrew the “alas!”

6:48 PM

golf ma passion

Let me ask you a question. What is the most favorite sports played by most of the people on their vacation and tour trips? You are absolutely right if your answer was Golf. Yes! Golf is the most favorite sports for many of the people in vacation. Like any one else, even I am very crazy about playing it. I love to play golf whenever I find free time. If I do not find a free time, I will make an adjustment with my works such that I get enough free time to play Golf. I am here to give you information about a web site which helps me in playing golfkurse in germany. This web site deals mainly with golf any anything and every thing that are related with golf. Few of their service includes Golfreisen sports holiday and also they do offer golf lessons from which you can learn the strategies and playing styles of golf. You can play golf peacefully in a small town called GutIsing, which is located at the wonderful and lovely banks of chiemsee, which is none other than the biggest lake which is located in Germany. The beautiful and peaceful environment will rejuvenate you and so you can play your most favorite sport with cool and relaxed mind. This will make your vacation and your game a most memorable event in the rest of your life. I have experienced it. I am sure that you will also get the same experience which I have experienced in the golf. In order to feel the experience, you have to play the golf. And to play golf under this environment, you have no other go other than approaching this web site and book your space for the tour and to play golf. In addition to this, you can stay in a 4 star hotel which is owned by this web site people. This hotel is located in the same place Gut Ising, which I have mentioned already.

6:47 PM

JAMES FENIMIRE COOPER-3

The History Provoked bitter controversy over its treatment of the Battle of Lake Erie. After the failure of his first novel, Precaution (1820), he turned out five romances on American themes, starting with The Spy (1821), to prove that America could write as well as read literature. His best work relies on his knowledge of the terrain of upstate New York and accounts of Native Americans.

By 1841, he was to work on familiar themes with The Pathfinder and The Deerslayer, which with The Prairie (1827), completed the life story of his wilderness-hunter Natty Bumppo, or Leather-Stocking.

6:46 PM

bizzing the business…

As every one of us know, business is the back bone of any country. It is the prime factor of economy of any country. Doing business is not an easy task. There are lots of works involved in doing a business. No matter how big or how small your business is, you have to do advertisements and create awareness about your business to make money. Here is a web site that helps you to promote your business. In this Business Blog, you can write about your business and make it grow by writing the Business Review on the business which you are involved in. This web site will take your business to places where hundreds of thousands of people are able to see and know about your business. Check out the web site to get more and more information and details about promoting your business. I hope this post would help you in finding the right solution for all your queries in business promotion.

6:45 PM

JAMES FENIMIRE COOPER-1

James Fenimore Cooper grew up in Lake Otsego, New York, where his father, Judge William Cooper, author of A Guide in the Wilderness (1810), had founded the frontier village of Cooperstown. James Fenimore Cooper describes his boyhood home, a bit of aristocracy on the fringe of the backwoods, in the first of his “Leather-Stocking Tales,” The Pioneers (1823), and with less sympathy, in Home as Found (1838). James Fenimore Cooper left college without graduating and spent several years aboard merchant ships and with the US Navy. From this came the books The Pilot (1823), and his scholarly and pioneering History of the Navy of the United States pf America (1839).

6:44 PM

GEORGE SAND 3

Her association with Alfred de Musset in an effort to “realize the ideal of Romantic love” inspired despairing notes in the poet’s verse. The criticism has a basis, but the idealizations are so consistent that they reveal the realty behind the idealized figures. Of the so-called “Romanesque” novels, the better known are Jean de la Roche (1860) and Le Marquis de Villemer(1861). George Sand wrote spontaneously, often without prearranged plan. In spite of this fault, her characters have a lifelike mobility which permits revealing development. In her descriptions of nature, accurate in detail and outline, her own personality is lyrically merged in the scene. V.Lucas translated and edited her Latters (1930), and M.J. Howe her Intimate Journal (1929).

4:30 PM

make friends...

One thing that can stop all the war that happens in every part of the world is making friends. This is the only choice to stop all the inhumanity that takes place in the world. Without chat we can not make friends. There fore, the wiccan chat helps you in getting new friends. In wiccan chat rooms, you can see innumerable people and make friends. The free wiccan chat rooms will make you rich in friends and also in communicational skill. Do chat more to take part more in the art of making friends and friendship. Let friendship gets spread all over the world.

4:30 PM

GEORGE SAND 2

In the novels Valentine (1832), Lelia (1833), Jacques (1834), and Mauprat (1837), the human heart is frequently at grips with the conventions of society. Love is glorified as the eternal and exclusive passion, always hindered and handicapped by false social standards.
The mild and sentimental socialism of the decade 1840-1850 inspired Consuelo (1842-1843), Le meunier d’Angibault (1845), and Le peche’de Monsieur Antoine (1847), She was later accused of over-idealizing the peasants of her native Berry in her novels of country life, notably in Jeanne (1844), La Mare au Diable (1846), La petite Fadette (1849), Francois le Champi (1847), and Les Matres Sonneurs (1852).
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4:26 PM

GEORGE SAND

Aurore Dupin was born in Paris in 1804, and spent her childhood at Nohant, in Barry. She studied for three years at the Convent des Anglaises in Paris, where she became involved in mysticism.
Returning to Nohant, she read Rousseau, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Chateaubriand, and other the-popular philosophers. When her marriage to born Dudevant ended in 1822, she returned to Paris to earn her living as a writer. She took the name George Sand as a nom de plume, because of her perception that women authors were not as marketable as men. Her novel Indiana (1832) first made famous the pseudonym she would use during 40 years of literary activity.

4:26 PM

communichat...

We have to communicate with others to get the stuff we need from others. Unless we communicate with others, we can not get the stuff which we need. The wiccan chat is one place, where we can communicate with the people who live all around the world. The wiccan chat rooms are the meeting place for all of us where we can meet new people every hour. It is a free service and so the chat rooms are a free wiccan chat rooms where you can hang out well and bring a new world of friendship to your own world. Make friendship alive through this web site.

4:26 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 4

He recovered what Puritans professed but seldom practiced, the spirit of piety, humility, and tragedy in the face of the inscrutable ways of God”, Hence in “The minister’s Black Veil”, “young Goodman Brown” Brown” and other stories, Hawthorne told of the universal sinfulness of mankind. In The Scarlet Letter, of the need by the sinner for both penance and penitence; in The Marble Faun, of the genesis of sin; and in other narratives, of other aspects of sin and its expiation.
To develop his themes, Hawthorne cultivated a unique technique. As a boy, he had become acquainted with the writings of some of the great allegorists. Basing his method on suggestions derived from his reading of these authors, he located his stories, as he said, “In a neutral territory, somewhere between the real work and fairy land, where the Actual and the Imaginary may meet and each imbue itself with the other.

4:26 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 3

This theme, like others, is based on beliefs derived from Hawthorne’s own experiences. Another interest of Hawthorne’s which is important in his fiction was in the nature of sin and atonement. . His Italian travels furnished details utilized in the Marble Faun (1860).

During a period when many intellectuals in New England were Unitarians or Transcendentalists, Hawthorne tended to find validity in beliefs which many of his contemporaries had rejected; the beliefs of his puritan ancestors. Although not a formal convert to Calvinism, this author, as Prof. Herbert W.Schneider remarked in the puritan Mind, “saw the empirical truth behind the Calvinist symbols.

4:26 PM

chat ya chat

I asked one of my friends about his views no chatting. He said lot of stuffs about chat. He also added a World Wide Web site called pagan chat where we can do chatting with people. According to my friend, chatting is the only means through which we can get in touch with people in the fast world we live in. The pagan chat rooms are similar to our rooms where we can find new people and create a new relationship called friendship. If you are lucky enough, then through this free pagan chat rooms, you can make relationships through friendship. The luck is yours.

3:52 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 2

The year 1852 was the publication of a collection of tales, The Snow Image, and a book – length narrative, The Blithe dale Romance; the latter of which dealt in fictional from. Hawthorne’s memories and impressions of Brook farm. The same year, he wrote a campaign biography of his former collage mate, Franklin pierce. When pierce was elected to the presidency, he appointed Hawthorne as consul to Liverpool (1853-1857). Between 1857 and 1860, the author and his family traveled in Italy and resided in England
Noteworthy in Hawthorne’s tales and novels are certain themes and techniques. One theme frequently stressed is the undesirability of the isolation of the individual from his fellows.
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3:52 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 1804-1864

Descended from an old New England family which had been in Massachusetts since 1630, Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts. His first book, Fans awe (1828), was a romantic fictional treatment based on his years at Bowdoin College. His short stories were collected and published in Twice – Told Tales (1837), only after Horatio Bridge had anteed that the publisher would not lose money by issuing the volume. They won little attention. The year this novel appeared, he and his family returned to “The Wayside” in Concord. Hawthorne died at Plymouth, New Hampshire, while on a trip with ex-president pierce.

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3:50 PM

Get loans at ease…

Money is the important need for every individual in the world. Sometimes people need money in emergency situations. In such situations, people struggle a lot to get the money to meet their needs. Loan is one of the option, people use to choose in emergency situations. Getting a loan in today’s scenario is very difficult task. Getting a loan without any property is impossible yesterday, but it is possible today through personal loans. They have unsecured personal loans, which is provided to the borrower without any security. The unsecured loan is not only provided for the personal use, it is also being provided for small and big business. The limit for the unsecured personal loan is one hundred thousand dollars. Installment loans are provided as the loan to buy the automobiles too. You can repay the loans monthly wise and the interest is also very less compared to other banks. If you are in urgent need of money, you can reach here to get the money. Have a joyful life.

3:48 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 3

Edward’s son, Edward Robert Bulwer, First Earl of Lytton (1831-1891), was also an author and politician. Born in London and educated at Harrow, he wrote poetry under the name Owen Meredith, and earned a considerable literary reputation. Before succeeding to his father’s title in 1873, he had widespread diplomatic experience at Washington and throughout Europe. In 1876 he became viceroy of India, where his administration was notable for his diplomatic services in connection with the Afghan War and for his energetic campaign against famine. He became Earl of Lytton in 1880, and was appointed ambassador at Paris in 1887, where he died suddenly.

3:48 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 2

Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton eventually returned to parliament in 1852 as a Conservative, representing Hertfordshire until 1866, when he became Lard.
Lytton continued to write fiction, the most popular examples being Zanoni (1842), The Last of the Barons (1843), Lucretia (1847), Harold (1848), The Caxtons (1849), My Novel (1853), and Kenelm Chillingly (1873). Edward George Earle Lytton published several volumes of verse, notably the satiric New Timon (1846) and St. Stephen’s (1860), a romantic epic called King Arthur (1848-1849), and The Lost Tales of Miletus (1866). His best – known book was Lucile (1860), a long verse – narrative.



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3:47 PM

Fun in internet…

Hi everybody, very good morning to you all. If you have an internet connection, then nothing is impossible. You can get everything, from money to friends. Yesterday, while surfing the internet for some entertainment, I found pagan chat rooms. This is the website to chat online around the world. All you need is just to register yourself in this website. The registration is completely free in free pagan chat rooms and once the registration process is complete, you can start chatting. The chat time is unlimited in pagan chat rooms, so you can have an unlimited fun and entertainment in pagan chat rooms. Have a nice time.

3:46 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 1

Under Macready’s management, and to some extent under his guidance, Lytton brought out at Drury Lane his own poetical play, The Duchess of La Vallaire (1836), with but small success. This was followed by the romantic comedy The Lady of Lyons (1838), which had a continued success on the stage; Richelieu (1839), a very popular historical poetic drama, and Money (1840), which proved to be a highly remunerative comedy. Meanwhile, Lytton was achieving a reputation in the House of Commons, where he served as a Liberal member for St. Ives from 1831 to 1832 and for Lincoln from 1832 to 1841.
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3:43 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 1803-1873

A novelist and politician, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton (later First Baron Lytton) was born in London and educated at Cambridge, were he won the Chancellor’s Medal for poetry. The first work that brought him into prominence was his novel Pelham, published anonymously in 1828. His subsequent successes, such as Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834), Rieni (1835), and Ernest Malt avers (1837), brought him success and renown under his own name. The Last Days of Pompeii and Rienzi revealed Lytton’s knack of holding the reader’s interest in archeological and historical novels.
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7:40 PM

clean the colons

Health is wealth is an old proverb, but the most needed proverb for today’s people. Everyone in the world is suffering from various health problems. Some people will take proper care of their body and will lead a healthy life, while others are careless and are being affected by diseases. Stomach Colon is one most common health problem that all the people ignore to take care of, but the specialists are advising the people to care proper care of this problem in the initial stage itself. I also had the same problem, so before consulting a doctor I would like to know about the problem. In Google I searched about the problem and found an interesting website, which gives the reviews about the colon cleansers available in the markets. colon cleanser reviews have rated the products based on ten criteria and in the review all the merits and also the side effects are told to the customers.

7:37 PM

Sources of waste.

Different types and amounts of waste are generated by different sources, like homes, hospitals, factories and farms. I will discuss some of those wastes in this post. The waste produced by homes is called domestic waste. The type and the amount generated by a family depends upon its income and the place where it lives. For example, the waste generated by the urban town family contains a higher percentage of non-biodegradable waste than that generated by a rural family. The amount of waste generated by an urban family is also greater.

7:27 PM

Effects of over utilization

Natural resources are of two kinds. They are renewable and non-renewable. Resources which are replaced by natural processes are called renewable. Air, water and sunlight are renewable. They do not get over when we use them because nature replaces them. we use oxygen of the air, for example. And the natural process of photosynthesis replaces it. Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are those which cannot be replaced easily by the natural process, we run the risk of exhausting them if we use them up too fast. Fossil fuels, for example, took millions of years to form. If we over utilize them, we may run out of them because nature cannot replace them that fast.

5:03 PM

for singles...

It is becoming very rare to see a good web site now a day. Such a rare occasion occurred recently. Yes, I saw a very good web site which offers us the service for all the Gothic Singles and Gothic Personals who live all over the world. The service is none other than the Gothic Dating service, which is the hottest trend in today’s world. Using this web site as a medium, you can meet up thousands of people across the world and blow about you to the world. As I said earlier in this same post, it is very rare to find a good web site where you can share any thing and every thing about you. Since we have got one, do it without any delays. Hope you would have heard the saying, time and tide will wait for those who actively work. Be one and have fun in this World Wide Web site.

7:54 PM

lets light up...

There are lot of inventions that are made by man. Among them, light takes an important place. When man invented lights, it lighted his life, his career, his profession, his development and everything that are in and around him.

Lights had taken lot of implementations and developments in itself according to the needs and necessities. Here we go for such lights which gives you not just light but more than light. When it comes to military, it directly deals with the safety and security of every citizens who lives in the country.


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2:00 PM

Power of positive beliefs

What we create through our thoughts is a belief system, and that belief system will ultimately determines whether we live a successful life. The key to change our belief system is changing our thoughts. A successful man constantly picturing to himself, the success of his undertakings. He is backing up his vision through his efforts. By clinging to his vision with his vigorous resolution, persistent and determined endeavor, he is continually making himself a powerful magnet to draw his success

11:36 AM

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11:36 AM

Hacking

Hacking refers to gaining access to another person’s computer. Special meaning given to the word access is the execution of the function of a computer. This captures direct or remote access without any physical contact with an individual computer. It includes viewing files, data and other secret information in the computer.

11:29 AM

Devil in a dream

The devil is a representation of evil in all its forms. If you dreamed of the evil punishing you, then the dream is to tell you that you have reached the time to clear your mind and your guilty conscious secret. If you have won the fight against the evil, then all your troubles and the problems will be solved. If you have a friendly relationship with the evil, then it is time to have a complete medical workup done.

10:47 AM

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10:47 AM

Relay application considerations

1. Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires evaluation of many different factors:
2. Number and type of contacts - normally open, normally closed, changeover (double-throw)
3. In the case of changeover, there are two types. This style of relay can be manufactured two different ways. "Make before Break" and "Break before Make". The old style telephone switch required Make-before-break so that the connection didn't get dropped while dialing the number. The railroad still uses them to control railroad crossings.
4. Rating of contacts - small relays switch a few amperes, large contactors are rated for up to 3000 amperes, alternating or direct current
5. Voltage rating of contacts - typical control relays rated 300 VAC or 600 VAC, automotive types to 50 VDC, special high-voltage relays to about 15,000 V
6. Coil voltage - machine-tool relays usually 24 VAC or 120 VAC, relays for switchgear may have 125 V or 250 VDC coils, "sensitive" relays operate on a few mill amperes
7. Package/enclosure - open, touch-safe, double-voltage for isolation between circuits, explosion proof, outdoor, oil-splash resistant
8. Mounting - sockets, plug board, rail mount, panel mount, through-panel mount, enclosure for mounting on walls or equipment
9. Switching time - where high speed is required
10. "Dry" contacts - when switching very low level signals, special contact materials may be needed such as gold-plated contacts
11. Contact protection - suppress arcing in very inductive circuits
12. Coil protection - suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil current
13. Isolation between coil circuit and contacts
14. Aerospace or radiation-resistant testing, special quality assurance
15. Expected mechanical loads due to acceleration - some relays used in aerospace applications are designed to function in shock loads of 50 g or more
16. Accessories such as timers, auxiliary contacts, pilot lamps, test buttons
17. Regulatory approvals
18. Stray magnetic linkage between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit board.

10:47 AM

Connectors

RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communications Equipment (DCE); this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. The standard recommended but did not make mandatory the D-subminiature 25 pin connector. In general, terminals have male connectors with DTE pin functions, and modems have female connectors with DCE pin functions. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions.
Presence of a 25 pin D-sub connector does not necessarily indicate an RS-232C compliant interface. For example, on the original IBM PC, a male D-sub was an RS-232C DTE port (with a non-standard current loop interface on reserved pins), but the female D-sub connector was used for a parallel Centronics printer port. Some personal computers put non-standard voltages or signals on their serial ports.

The standard specifies 20 different signal connections. Since most devices use only a few signals, smaller connectors can be used. For example, the 9 pin DE-9 connector was used by most IBM-compatible PCs since the IBM PC AT, and has been standardized as TIA-574. More recently, modular connectors have been used. Most common are 8 pin RJ-45 connectors. Standard EIA/TIA 561 specifies a pin assignment, but the "Yost Serial Device Wiring Standard" invented by Dave Yost is common on Unix computers and newer devices from Cisco Systems. Many devices don't use either of these standards. 10 pin RJ-50 connectors can be found on some devices as well. Digital Equipment Corporation defined their own DECconnect connection system which was based on the Modified Modular Jack connector. This is a 6 pin modular jack where the key is offset from the center position. As with the Yost standard, DECconnect uses a symmetrical pin layout which enables the direct connection between two DTEs. Another common connector is the DH10 header connector common on motherboards and add-in cards which are usually converted via a cable to the more standard 9 pin DE-9 connector (and frequently mounted on a free slot plate or other part of the housing).

9:24 AM

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9:23 AM

Standard details

In RS-232, data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is, signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.

Voltage levels


Diagrammatic oscilloscope trace of voltage levels for ASCII "K" character (0x4b) with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts. The range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level; logic one is defined as a negative voltage, the signal condition is called marking, and has the functional significance of OFF. Logic zero is positive; the signal condition is spacing, and has the function ON. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts; signal levels of ±5 V, ±10 V, ±12 V, and ±15 V are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a device. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to +/-25 volts. The slew rate, or how fast the signal changes between levels, is also controlled.
Because the voltage levels are higher than logic levels typically used by integrated circuits, special intervening driver circuits are required to translate logic levels. These also protect the device's internal circuitry from short circuits or transients that may appear on the RS-232 interface, and provide sufficient current to comply with the slew rate requirements for data transmission.
Because both ends of the RS-232 circuit depend on the ground pin being zero volts, problems will occur when connecting machinery and computers where the voltage between the ground pin on one end and the ground pin on the other is not zero. This may also cause a hazardous ground loop.

9:19 AM

Signals

Commonly-used signals are:
• Transmitted Data (TxD)
o Data sent from DTE to DCE.
• Received Data (RxD)
o Data sent from DCE to DTE.
• Request To Send (RTS)
o Asserted (set to 0) by DTE to prepare DCE to receive data. This may require action on the part of the DCE, e.g. transmitting a carrier or reversing the direction
• Clear To Send (CTS)
o Asserted by DCE to acknowledge RTS and allow DTE to transmit.
• Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
o Asserted by DTE to indicate that it is ready to be connected. If the DCE is a modem, this may "wake up" the modem, bringing it out of a power saving mode. This behavior is seen quite often in modern PSTN and GSM modems. When this signal is de-asserted, the modem may return to its standby mode, immediately hanging up any calls in progress.
• Data Set Ready (DSR)
o Asserted by DCE to indicate an active connection. If DCE is not a modem (e.g. a null modem cable or other equipment), this signal should be permanently asserted (set to 0), possibly by a jumper to another signal.
• Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
o Asserted by DCE when a connection has been established with remote equipment.
• Ring Indicator (RI)
o Asserted by DCE when it detects a ring signal from the telephone line.
• The standard defines RTS/CTS as the signaling protocol for flow control for data transmitted from DTE to DCE. The standard has no provision for flow control in the other direction. Various implementations of compatible ports may reassign other pins for flow control.

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11:42 AM

Functional Description:

The AT93C46/56/66 is accessed via a simple and versatile 3-wire serial communication interface. Device operation is controlled by seven instructions issued by the host processor.
A valid instruction starts with a rising edge of CS and consists of a Start Bit (logic “1”) followed by the appropriate Op Code and the desired memory Address location.

READ (READ): The Read (READ) instruction contains the Address code for the memory location to be read. After the instruction and address are decoded, data from the selected memory location is available at the serial output pin DO. Output data changes are synchronized with the rising edges of serial clock SK. It should be noted that a dummy bit (logic “0”) precedes the 8- or 16-bit data output string.

ERASE/WRITE (EWEN): To assure data integrity, the part automatically goes into the Erase/Write Disable (EWDS) state when power is first applied. An Erase/Write Enable (EWEN) instruction must be executed first before any programming instructions can be carried out. Please note that once in the Erase/Write Enable state, programming remains enabled until an Erase/Write Disable (EWDS) instruction is executed or VCC power is removed from the part.

ERASE (ERASE): The Erase (ERASE) instruction programs all bits in the specified memory location to the logical “1” state. The self-timed erase cycle starts once the ERASE instruction and address are decoded. The DO pin outputs the READY/BUSY status of the part if CS is brought high after being kept low for a minimum of 250 ns (tCS). Logic “1” at pin DO indicates that the selected memory location has been erased, and the part is ready for another instruction.

WRITE (WRITE): The Write (WRITE) instruction contains the 8 or 16 bits of data to be written into the specified memory location. The self-timed programming cycle, tWP, starts after the last bit of data is received at serial data input pin DI. The DO pin outputs the READY/BUSY status of the part if CS is brought high after being kept low for a minimum of 250 ns (tCS). Logic “0” at DO indicates that programming is still in progress. Logic “1” indicates that the memory location at the specified address has been written with the data pattern contained in the instruction and the part is ready for further instructions. A READY/BUSY status cannot be obtained if the CS is brought high after the end of the self-timed programming cycle, tWP.

ERASE ALL (ERAL): The Erase All (ERAL) instruction programs every bit in the memory array to the logic “1” state and is primarily used for testing purposes. The DO pin outputs the READY/BUSY status of the part if CS is brought high after being kept low for a minimum of 250 ns (tCS). The ERAL instruction is valid only at VCC = 5.0V ± 10%.

WRITE ALL (WRAL): The Write All (WRAL) instruction programs all memory locations with the data patterns specified in the instruction. The DO pin outputs the READY/BUSY status of the part if CS is brought high after being kept low for a minimum of 250 ns (tCS). The WRAL instruction is valid only at VCC = 5.0V ± 10%.

ERASE/WRITE DISABLES (EWDS): To protect against accidental data disturb, the Erase/Write Disable (EWDS) instruction disables all programming modes and should be executed after all programming operations. The operation of the READ instruction is independent of both the EWEN and EWDS instructions and can be executed at any time.

11:41 AM

AT93C56

The AT93C46/56/66 provides 1024/2048/4096 bits of serial electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) organized as 64/128/256 words of 16 bits each, when the ORG pin is connected to VCC and 128/256/512 words of 8 bits each when it is tied to ground. The device is optimized for use in many industrial and commercial applications where low power and low voltage operations are essential. The AT93C46/56/66 is available in space-saving 8-lead PDIP and 8-lead JEDEC and EIAJ SOIC packages.

11:40 AM

Features:

• Low-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation
• User-selectable Internal Organization
• 3-wire Serial Interface
• 2 MHz Clock Rate (5V)
• Self-timed Write Cycle (10 ms max)
• High Reliability
– Endurance: 1 Million Write Cycles
– Data Retention: 100 Years
• Automotive Grade and Extended Temperature Devices Available
• 8-lead PDIP, 8-lead JEDEC and EIAJ SOIC, and 8-lead TSSOP Packages

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11:40 AM

Watchdog timer


The device offers a programmable Watchdog Timer (WDT) for fail safe protection against software deadlock and automatic recovery.
To protect the system against software deadlock, the user software must refresh the WDT within a user-defined time period. If the software fails to do this periodical refresh, an internal hardware reset will be initiated if enabled (WDRE = 1). The software can be designed such that the WDT times out if the program does not work properly.

• Power-on Reset
At initial power up, the port pins will be in a random state until the oscillator has started and the internal reset algorithm has weakly pulled all pins HIGH. Powering up the device without a valid reset could cause the MCU to start executing instructions from an indeterminate location. Such undefined states may inadvertently corrupt the code in the flash.
When power is applied to the device, the RST pin must be held HIGH long enough for the oscillator to start up (usually several milliseconds for a low frequency crystal), in addition to two machine cycles for a valid power-on reset. An example of a method to extend the RST signal is to implement a RC circuit by connecting the RST pin to VDD through a 10 mF capacitor and to VSS through an 8.2 kW resistor. For a low frequency oscillator with slow start-up time the reset signal must be extended in order to account for the slow start-up time. This method maintains the necessary relationship between VDD and RST to avoid programming at an indeterminate location, which may cause corruption in the code of the flash. The power-on detection is designed to work as power-up initially, before the voltage reaches the brown-out detection level. The POF flag in the PCON register is set to indicate an initial power-up condition. The POF flag will remain active until cleared by software. Please refer to the PCON register definition for detail information. Following reset, the P89V51RD2 will either enter the Soft ICE mode (if previously enabled via ISP command) or attempt to auto baud to the ISP boot loader. If this auto baud is not successful within about 400 ms, the device will begin execution of the user code

11:38 AM

Software reset


The software reset is executed by changing FCF [1] (SWR) from ‘0’ to ‘1’. Software reset will reset the program counter to address 0000H. All SFR registers will be set to their reset values, except FCF [1] (SWR), WDTC [2] (WDTS), and RAM data will not be altered.

• Interrupt priority and polling sequence
The device supports eight interrupt sources under a four level priority scheme. It summarizes the polling sequence of the supported interrupts. Note that the SPI serial interface and the UART share the same interrupt vector.

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11:38 AM

SPI features

• LSB first or MSB first data transfer
• Four programmable bit rates
• End of transmission (SPIF)
• Write collision flag protection (WCOL)
• Wake-up from idle mode (slave mode only)
SPI description
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) allows high-speed
Synchronous data transfer between the P89V51RD2 and peripheral devices or between several P89V51RD2 devices. Figure 16 shows the correspondence between master and slave SPI devices. The SCK pin is the clock output and input for the master and slave modes, respectively. The SPI clock generator will start following a write to the master devices
SPI data register. The written data is then shifted out of the MOSI pin on the master device into the MOSI pin of the slave device. Following a complete transmission of one byte of data, the SPI clock generator is stopped and the SPIF flag is set. An SPI interrupt request will be generated if the SPI Interrupt Enable bit (SPIE) and the Serial Port Interrupt Enable bit (ES) are both set.
An external master drives the Slave Select input pin, SS/P1 [4], low to select the SPI module as a slave. If SS/P1 [4] has not been driven low, then the slave SPI unit is not active and the MOSI/P1 [5] port can also be used as an input port pin.
SPCR - SPI control register (address D5H) bit allocation

11:38 AM

UART

The UART operates in all standard modes. Enhancements over the standard 80C51 UART include Framing Error detection, and automatic address recognition.

 Mode 0
Serial data enters and exits through RxD and TxD outputs the shift clock. Only 8 bits are transmitted or received, LSB first. The baud rate is fixed at 1¤6 of the CPU clock frequency. UART configured to operate in this mode outputs serial clock on TxD line no matter whether it sends or receives data on RxD line.
 Mode 1
10 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start bit (logical 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), and a stop bit (logical 1). When data is received, the stop bit is stored in RB8 in Special Function Register SCON. The baud rate is variable and is determined by the Timer 1¤2 overflow rate.

 Mode 2
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): start bit (logical 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (logical 1). When data is transmitted, the 9th data bit (TB8 in SCON) can be assigned the value of 0 or (e.g. the parity bit (P, in the PSW) could be moved into TB8). When data is received, the 9th data bit goes into RB8 in Special Function Register SCON, while the stop bit is ignored. The baud rate is programmable to either 1¤16 or 1¤32 of the CPU clock frequency, as determined by the SMOD1 bit in PCON.

 Mode 3
11 bits are transmitted (through TxD) or received (through RxD): a start bit (logical 0), 8 data bits (LSB first), a programmable 9th data bit, and a stop bit (logical 1). In fact, Mode 3 is the same as Mode 2 in all respects except baud rate. The baud rate in Mode 3 is variable and is determined by the Timer 1¤2 overflow rate.


SCON - Serial port control register (address 98H) SM0/SM1 mode definition

 Framing error
Framing error (FE) is reported in the SCON.7 bit if SMOD0 (PCON.6) = 1. If SMOD0 = 0, SCON.7 is the SM0 bit for the UART, it is recommended that SM0 is set up before SMOD0 is set to ‘1’.
 More about UART mode 1
Reception is initiated by a detected 1-to-0 transition at RxD. For this purpose RxD is sampled at a rate of 16 times whatever baud rate has been established. When a transition is detected, the divide-by-16 counter is immediately reset to align its rollovers with the boundaries of the incoming bit times. The 16 states of the counter divide each bit time into 16ths. At the 7th, 8th, and 9th counter states of each bit time, the bit detector samples the value of RxD. The value accepted is the value that was seen in at least 2 of the 3 samples. This is done for noise rejection. If the value accepted during the first bit time is not 0, the receive circuits are reset and the unit goes back to looking for another 1-to-0 transition. This is to provide rejection of false start bits. If the start bit proves valid, it is shifted into the input shift register, and reception of the rest of the frame will proceed.

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11:03 AM

Timers/counters 0 and 1

The two 16-bit Timer/Counter registers: Timer 0 and Timer 1 can be configured to operate either as timers or event counters.
In the ‘Timer’ function, the register is incremented every machine cycle. Thus, one can think of it as counting machine cycles. Since a machine cycle consists of six oscillator periods, the count rate is 1¤6 of the oscillator frequency.
In the ‘Counter’ function, the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external input pin, T0 or T1. In this function, the external input is sampled once every machine cycle.
When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle, the count is incremented. The new count value appears in the register in the machine cycle following the one in which the transition was detected. Since it takes two machine cycles (12 oscillator periods) for 1-to-0 transition to be recognized, the maximum count rate is 1¤12 of the oscillator frequency. There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes, it should be held for at least one full machine cycle. In addition to the ‘Timer’ or ‘Counter’ selection, Timer 0 and Timer 1 have four operating modes from which to select.

• Mode 0
Putting either Timer into Mode 0 makes it look like an 8048 Timer, which is an 8-bit Counter with a fixed divide-by-32 pre scalar. Figure shows Mode 0 operation.

In this mode, the Timer register is configured as a 13-bit register. As the count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s, it sets the Timer interrupt flag TFn. The count input is enabled to the Timer when TRn = 1 and either GATE = 0 or INTn = 1. (Setting GATE = 1 allows the Timer to be controlled by external input INTn, to facilitate pulse width measurements). TRn is a control bit in the Special Function Register TCON (Figure 6). The GATE bit is in the TMOD register.

• Mode 1
Mode 1 is the same as Mode 0, except that all 16 bits of the timer register (THn and TLn) are used.




• Mode 2
Mode 2 configures the Timer register as an 8-bit Counter (TLn) with automatic reloads, as shown in Figure 9. Overflow from TLn not only sets TFn, but also reloads TLn with the contents of THn, which must be preset by software. The reload leaves THn unchanged. Mode 2 operation is the same for Timer 0 and Timer 1.

• Mode 3
When timer 1 is in Mode 3 it is stopped (holds its count). The effect is the same as setting TR1 = 0.
Timer 0 in Mode 3 establishes TL0 and TH0 as two separate 8-bit counters. The logic for Mode 3 and Timer 0 is shown in Figure 10. TL0 uses the Timer 0 control bits: T0C/T, T0GATE, TR0, INT0, and TF0. TH0 is locked into a timer function (counting machine cycles) and takes over the use of TR1 and TF1 from Timer 1. Thus, TH0 now controls the ‘Timer 1’ interrupt.
Mode 3 is provided for applications that require an extra 8-bit timer. With Timer 0 in Mode 3, the P89V51RD2 can look like it has an additional Timer.
Note: When Timer 0 is in Mode 3, Timer 1 can be turned on and off by switching it into and out of its own Mode 3. It can still be used by the serial port as a baud rate generator, or in any application not requiring an interrupt.

• Timer 2
Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter which can operate as either an event timer or an event counter, as selected by C/T2 in the special function register T2CON. Timer 2 has four operating modes: Capture, Auto-reload (up or down counting), Clock-out, and Baud Rate Generator which are selected according to Table 17 using T2CON and T2MOD.

• Capture mode
In the Capture Mode there are two options which are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0 Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer or counter (as selected by C/T2 in T2CON) which upon overflowing sets bit TF2, the Timer 2 overflow bit.

This bit can be used to generate an interrupt (by enabling the Timer 2 interrupt bit in the IEN0 register). If EXEN2 = 1, Timer 2 operates as described above, but with the added feature that a 1- to -0 transition at external input T2EX causes the current value in the Timer 2 registers, TL2 and TH2, to be captured into registers RCAP2L and RCAP2H, respectively.

11:03 AM

In-Application Programming method

Several In-Application Programming (IAP) calls are available for use by an application program to permit selective erasing, reading and programming of Flash sectors, pages, security bit, configuration bytes, and device id. All calls are made through a common interface, PGM_MTP. The programming functions are selected by setting up the microcontroller’s registers before making a call to PGM_MTP at 1FF0H.

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10:49 AM

Flash memory In-Application Programming

Power-On reset code execution
Following reset, the P89V51RD2 will either enter the Soft ICE mode (if previously enabled via ISP command) or attempt to auto baud to the ISP boot loader. If this auto baud is not successful within about 400 ms, the device will begin execution of the user code.


Using the In-System Programming
The ISP feature allows for a wide range of baud rates to be used in your application, independent of the oscillator frequency. It is also adaptable to a wide range of oscillator frequencies. This is accomplished by measuring the bit-time of a single bit in a received character. This information is then used to program the baud rate in terms of timer counts based on the oscillator frequency. The ISP feature requires that an initial character (an uppercase U) be sent to the P89V51RD2 to establish the baud rate. The ISP firmware provides auto-echo of received characters. Once baud rate initialization has been performed, the ISP firmware will only accept Intel Hex-type records.

10:49 AM

Flash organization

The P89V51RD2 program memory consists of a 64 kB block. An In-System Programming (ISP) capability, in a second 8 kB block, is provided to allow the user code to be programmed in-circuit through the serial port. There are three methods of erasing or programming of the Flash memory that may be used. First, the Flash may be programmed or erased in the end-user application by calling low-level routines through a common entry point (IAP). Second, the on-chip ISP boot loader may be invoked. This ISP boot loader will, in turn, call low-level routines through the same common entry point that can be used by the end-user application. Third, the Flash may be programmed or erased using the parallel method by using a commercially available EPROM programmer which supports this device.

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10:40 AM

Memory organization

The device has separate address spaces for program and data memory.
Data RAM memory
The data RAM has 1024 bytes of internal memory. The device can also address up to 64 kB for external data memory.


Expanded data RAM addressing
The P89V51RD2 has 1 kB of RAM. See Figure 5 “Internal and external data memory structure.”

The device has four sections of internal data memory:
1. The lower 128 bytes of RAM (00H to 7FH) are directly and indirectly addressable.
2. The higher 128 bytes of RAM (80H to FFH) are indirectly addressable.
3. The special function registers (80H to FFH) are directly addressable only.
4. The expanded RAM of 768 bytes (00H to 2FFH) is indirectly addressable by the move external instruction (MOVX) and clearing the EXTRAM bit.

Since the upper 128 bytes occupy the same addresses as the SFRs, the RAM must be accessed indirectly. The RAM and SFRs space are physically separate even though they have the same addresses.
AUXR - Auxiliary register (address 8EH) bit allocation
Not bit addressable; Reset value 00H


Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Symbol - - - - - - EXTRAM AO
When instructions access addresses in the upper 128 bytes (above 7FH), the MCU determines whether to access the SFRs or RAM by the type of instruction given. If it is indirect, then RAM is accessed. If it is direct, then an SFR is accessed. See the examples below.

10:39 AM

Flash program memory

There are two internal flash memory blocks in the device. Block 0 has 64 Kbytes and contains the user’s code. Block 1 contains the Philips-provided ISP/IAP routines and may be enabled such that it overlays the first 8 Kbytes of the user code memory.

The 64 kB Block 0 is organized as 512 sectors, each sector consists of 128 bytes. Access to the IAP routines may be enabled by clearing the BSEL bit in the FCF register. However, caution must be taken when dynamically changing the BSEL bit.

Since this will cause different physical memory to be mapped to the logical program address space, the user must avoid learning the BSEL bit when executing user code within the address range 0000H to 1FFFH.

10:37 AM

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10:37 AM

Special function registers:

Special Function Registers (SFRs) accesses are restricted in the following ways:
• User must not attempt to access any SFR locations not defined.
• Accesses to any defined SFR locations must be strictly for the functions for the
• SFRs.
• SFR bits labeled ‘-’, ‘0’ or ‘1’ can only be written and read as follows:
• ‘-’ Unless otherwise specified, must be written with ‘0’, but can return any value when read (even if it was written with ‘0’). It is a reserved bit and may be used in future derivatives.
– ‘0’ must be written with ‘0’, and will return a ‘0’ when read.
– ‘1’ must be written with ‘1’, and will return a ‘1’ when read.

10:36 AM

Features of GSM

• 80C51 Central Processing Unit
• 5 V Operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz
• 64 kB of on-chip Flash program memory with ISP (In-System Programming) and
• IAP (In-Application Programming)
• Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP
• SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and enhanced UART
• PCA (Programmable Counter Array) with PWM and Capture/Compare functions
• Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current Port 1 pins (16 mA each)
• Three 16-bit timers/counters
• Programmable Watchdog timer (WDT)
• Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels
• Second DPTR register
• Low EMI mode (ALE inhibit)
• TTL- and CMOS-compatible logic levels.
• Brown-out detection
• Low power modes
• Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up
• Idle mode
• PDIP40, PLCC44 and TQFP44 packages.

10:29 AM

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10:16 AM

Power-down mode

The Power-down mode is entered by setting the PD bit in the PCON register. In the Power-down mode, the clock is stopped and external interrupts are active for level sensitive interrupts only. SRAM contents are retained during Power-down; the minimum VDD level is 2.0 V.

The device exits Power-down mode through either an enabled external level sensitive interrupt or a hardware reset. The start of the interrupt clears the PD bit and exits Power-down. Holding the external interrupt pin low restarts the oscillator, the signal must hold low at least 1024 clock cycles before bringing back high to complete the exit. Upon interrupt signal restored to logic VIH, the interrupt service routine program execution resumes beginning at the instruction immediately following the instruction which invoked Power-down mode. A hardware reset starts the device similar to power-on reset.

To exit properly out of Power-down, the reset or external interrupt should not be executed before the VDD line is restored to its normal operating voltage. Be sure to hold VDD voltage long enough at its normal operating level for the oscillator to restart and stabilize (normally less than 10 ms).

10:15 AM

Power-saving modes

The device provides two power saving modes of operation for applications where power consumption is critical. The two modes are idle and Power-down.

Idle mode

Idle mode is entered setting the IDL bit in the PCON register. In idle mode, the program counter (PC) is stopped. The system clock continues to run and all interrupts and peripherals remain active. The on-chip RAM and the special function registers hold their data during this mode.

10:12 AM

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10:12 AM

Microcontroller

The Flash program memory supports both parallel programming and in serial In-System Programming (ISP). Parallel programming mode offers gang-programming at high speed, reducing programming costs and time to market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under software control. The capability to field/update the application firmware makes a wide range of applications possible. The P89V51RD2 is also In-Application Programmable (IAP), allowing the Flash program memory to be reconfigured even while the application is running.

10:11 AM

IMPLEMENTATION - GSM

 The user will send the SMS to the system end (tool free number) for railway ticket.
 The system end will send reply SMS (5 digit random number) to user’s mobile phone.
 The cost of the railway ticket will be reduced from mobile balance.
 The random no along with the user ph no has to be entered in the keypad for collecting ticket.
 Railway ticket will be collected from the thermal printer.

9:09 PM

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9:03 PM

Microcontroller

In modern electronics, all operations are to be very precise and accurate. Moreover the usage of components should be simple, economic, reliable and compact. In addition to all these, they should be more users friendly. In previous days there were components, which do not provide all these requirements. Later in the development of electronics brought into field the microprocessors. These microprocessors were found to be simple cheap and so on. Further development introduced micro-controllers in the market.

8:26 PM

FINGERPRINT USAGE AND MAINTENANCE

In this post of mine i will provide you the reader usage and maintenance guidelines, which are used to increase fingerprint registration and authentication performance. Proper use of the reader during fingerprint registration and authentication is crucial to achieving optimal fingerprint recognition performance. “Proper Fingerprint Reader Usage,” describes the proper way to use the reader to register fingerprints and authenticate using them. It is followed by reader maintenance instructions, provided in “Cleaning the Reader”

8:08 PM

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8:07 PM

verification vs idenfication in biometrics

The task of identity verification is much easier than that of identity recognition: the former involving just one comparison while the latter involving multiple comparisons with fingerprints in the database. Despite these differences in the functionalities among different fingerprint identification application domains, all the underlying systems rely on the distinctive individual information in fingerprints.

8:03 PM

Fingerprint identification

Fingerprint identification is based on two basic premises:
(i)persistence: the basic characteristics of fingerprints do no change with time; and (ii) individuality: the fingerprint is unique to an individual.
Since biometric identifiers cannot be easily misplaced, forged, or shared, they are considered more reliable for personal identification than traditional token or knowledge based methods. Table 1 summarizes typical applications of biometrics for positive person identification.

7:59 PM

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7:59 PM

behavioral biometrics

Behavioral biometrics is normally used for verification while physical biometrics can be used for identification and verification.
Some of physical biometrics is
Finger print - analyzing fingertip patterns.
Facial recognition – measuring facial characteristics
Hand geometry - measuring the shape of the hand
Iris recognition – analyzing features of colored ring of the eye
Vascular patterns - analyzing vein patterns
Retinal scan – analyzing blood vessels in the eye
Bertillon age – measuring body lengths (no longer used)

7:52 PM

one to many matching in biometrics

Biometric recognition is used in identification mode. The biometric system finds a person from the enrolled population by searching a database for a match based on the biometric. For instance an entire set of data base can be searched to identify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. This is also called one-to-many matching.

7:50 PM

busy in bdsm chat

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7:49 PM

working principle of biometrics

Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device, software that converts the gathered information into digital form, and a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with previous records. When converting the biometric input, the software identifies specific points of data as match points. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be compared with biometric data in the data base.

7:46 PM

Use of Main-frames…

The Main-frames we use today data back to April 7, 1964, with the announcement of the IBM system/360, system/360 was a revolutionary step in the development of the computer for many reasons. By this invention now we can do a numerically intensive scientific computing and I/O intensive numerical computing and managing the I/O operations.

7:40 PM

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7:39 PM

biometrics continued...

Biometrics means the statistical and mathematical strategies applied to data analysis problems in the biological sciences.
The term “biometrics” comes from the greek words bio(life) and metric (to ensure). For our use, biometrics means the technologies for measuring and analyzing a person’s physiological or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, and hand measurements, for identification and verification purposes.

7:38 PM

Biometrics

Biometrics is the automated identification of human identity through the measurement of repeatable physiological or behavioral characteristics”.
In simple terms identification means the search of a biometric sample against a database of other samples in order to confirm whether the donor is already present in, or new to the database.
Verification refers to the one to one comparison between a sample and another to ask the question, are you who you say you are. The majority of access control applications utilize verification techniques, rather than attempting searches of databases, which could compromise accuracy and raise costs.

7:34 PM

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7:31 PM

Mainframe…

Mainframe used to e defined by their size and they can still fit the room, cost millions and support thousands of users. But now a mainframe can also run on a laptop and support two users. So today’s mainframes are best supported by their operating system. UNIX and LINUX, IBMs and VSE. Reliable single thread performance, maximum I/O connectivity, maximum I?O bandwidth, reliability-Mainframe are its important features.

4:56 PM

Pushmail…

Pushmail is the type of e-mail found on mobile phones, PDAs and other smart phones. In this type the internet connection is always on and the e-mail is immediately delivered to the device, the instant it arrives on the server. In many cases only the header may be retrieved to the handheld so that the bandwidth is not wasted. IMAP4 supports pushmail.

4:52 PM

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4:52 PM

Format of e-mail

The format of the e-mail messages is called MIME. Before MIME only plain roman text could be sent. MIME specified how other types of information to be formatted so that they can be sent along with e-mails. The mapping of MIME and other formats are automatically done by MDAs and mail servers.

4:49 PM

Globalization in the past...

The globalization has its plus and minus. The Indus civilization had one of the most globalized economics of that time. Some cities specialized in the production of copper, others in beads and textiles-all meant for the export markets. Once again the period of Gupta Empire saw huge exports from India. India is known as the ‘golden bird’ though little gold is found in the country. The wealth of India in the past may be said to be substantially due to our having adopted an outward oriented trade policy.

8:39 PM

care for your teeth...

Hi everybody, a very good evening to you. In today’s world the health problems for a normal person is increasing rapidly. The main reason for this health problem is the food habit. Dental problem is one among those health problems that we cannot be able to tolerate and the dental problem occurs mainly due to the sweets and the chocolates that we eat. As we are very fond of these items we cannot avoid that. Then how to solve these problems? Here comes the solution for our dental problems and it is Dental Marketing. This is a developing website that provides the solution for our dental problems. They suggest the prevention measures that we should exercise in our daily life to avoid the dental problems. What is the solution if we are suffering from dental problems? Do not worry. They have the answer for that too. They provide you the details of the best dental doctors in the city to care of your teeth. You will find it very useful visiting this website in the future. Have a healthy life.

1:05 PM

Take care while using computers

Though we have several advantages in using the computers, there are some disadvantages too. It comes in the case of our health. There are many surveys saying that, using the computers for a long time will affect your eyes. Don’t worry there are some preventive measures are also available. It is called as 20-20 principle by the doctors. Every 20 minutes while using the computer you should see some objects at the distance of 20 meters for just 20 seconds. This will reduce the stress produced on your eyes.

1:22 AM

no piles from now...

I still remember, it was my first day in college, our lecturer asked us a question. The question was “What would you ask if God asks you to ask him for a wish?” Many people said many answers. I told, “I will ask him to multiply the wish by 3 since I had 3 wishes”. Jokes apart, now in this very day, if some one asks me the same question, my reply would be like “I should never ever get hemorrhoids in my life. If he wishes, he can give it to my biggest enemy”. I am not joking people. This is the worst thing one can get in his health. Many people used to call hemorrhoids by the term piles. Many people would have met many people who are affected by piles complaint. I have met a piles complaint patient on a travel. I got shocked to know about piles complaint and the causes of hemorrhoids. I do not want to elaborate it and waste your valuable time. I will put it in short and simple words. If you get piles, you will not be able to sit and you will get frequent bleeding. You will not also be able to excrete properly and you have to struggle hard to excrete. And when you excrete, it will bleed again and above all you will have extreme unbearable pain all the time in you anus. The pain will get even more worse when you sit and when you excrete. On the whole, you will feel as if you live in hell. You can not be able to concentrate in your work. You will lose your temper easily and you can not sit back and relax at all. Always your mind will be in stress. Hope you remember which I have mentioned already that you will get problems in excretion. Because of this, your internal health will start getting affected. The in excretion or the improper excretion results in other illness of health. In short, if you get affected by the piles complain problem, it means that you have been cursed. Well, no illness is incurable. The piles complaint problem is no exception in this. There are lot of hemorrhoids treatments available which cures the piles complaint problem and make you get rid of the piles complaint problem completely. It is always better to go for the best treatment instead going to just another treatment. The web site which I have mentioned over here gives you the best treatment for any kind of piles complaint problems. No matter how big your problem is, they have the best solution for it. There are lots of stages in the piles complaint problem. If you are affected by the piles complaint problem, then do not worry and do not lose your confidence. You can get your problem solved in few days. Visit the site once and you can find loads of information about piles and its effects. You can get lot of guidance and support from medical expert and last but the least, you can live happily. This is the ultimate goal for any human being who lives in the world. Health is not jus wealth. It is better than wealth.

8:29 AM

Reading

Reading is one of the best habit as well as hobby that one can ever have. Doesn’t it make our mind very pleased while we are in the action? I feel it does so. Whenever I was tensed, usually my habit is going to the library and to read any short story. After then I feel relaxed.
It doesn’t stick only with this purpose as you can gain the knowledge, which is the irremovable wealth of any human being. I should thank my dad, because he is the one who made me read. Thanks dad. I hope I should carry this habit throughout my lifetime.

1:01 AM

Indians on top…

The third test match between India and Australia begins today. After winning the toss the Indian captain Anil Kumble decided to bat. Initially the Australian bowlers trouble the Indian batsman as the first two wickets fell one after another. But then the Master batsman enters the field to rescue the team. Of course he did the rescue act perfectly. At the stumps Indians set their hands up by finishing the first day play by losing only three wickets to get the score of 296 runs.

1:22 PM

piggy to save...

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11:49 PM

top speed


This is my favorite bike pulsar. I have driven this bike many times to many places. It is the dream bike for many youngsters. This snap was taken when I and my friend went to my college. On that day I drive at the speed of 100 kilometers/hr. You can very well notice that in the speedometer. This drive is unforgettable for me as I just missed the accident on that day. From then I controlled my rash driving. So I hope you too will think about it.