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Gifts play a vital role in making any occasion a beautiful one. An occasion could be made as the most memorable one by giving gifts to everyone. Gifts are always special and they promote a special feel between the person who is giving a gift and the person who is receiving it. You can easily become a special person to someone by surprising them by giving gifts to them. When we decide to gift someone, we will be put up in to confusion about the type of gift to give. Many people will get a dilemma about which gift to give. Some people might get reaction in the opposite way than the expected one since they give a gift which is never liked by the person who receives it.
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Alfred Tennyson was born in Somersby, a village in Lincolnshire, near the east coast of England, and took up poetry at Cambridge. During the early 1830s, there was a death of good poetry, so there was unusual critical interest in the works of younger poets such as Elizabeth Barrett and Tennyson. Tennyson’s collections, the Poems Chiefly Lyrical of 1830 and the Proems of 1832 (dated 1833), were exactingly reviewed. He published the two volumes of Poems of 1842 with which critics and public alike were impressed. The grave b blank verse and heroic mood of “Ulysses and brilliant word pictures and moral idealism of “Morte d’ Arthur” pointed forward to the Idylls of the King.
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Victor Hugo returning to France in 1871, he wrote Ninety Three (1873), a romance of the Revolution, and The Four Winds of the Spirit (1881), poems in lyrical, epic, satirical and dramatic form; being the best fruit of that almost juvenile productivity. A lover of children, he was revered as “the universal grandfather,” publishing The Art of Being a Grandfather in 1877.
Baudelaire acknowledge his supremacy, Alfred Tennyson called him “weird Titan, cloud-weaver of phantasmal hopes and fears,” and Andre Gide, the very antithesis of Hugo, had to confess: “Our greatest poet, alas!” and in later year withdrew the “alas!”
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The History Provoked bitter controversy over its treatment of the Battle of Lake Erie. After the failure of his first novel, Precaution (1820), he turned out five romances on American themes, starting with The Spy (1821), to prove that America could write as well as read literature. His best work relies on his knowledge of the terrain of upstate New York and accounts of Native Americans.
By 1841, he was to work on familiar themes with The Pathfinder and The Deerslayer, which with The Prairie (1827), completed the life story of his wilderness-hunter Natty Bumppo, or Leather-Stocking.
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James Fenimore Cooper grew up in Lake Otsego, New York, where his father, Judge William Cooper, author of A Guide in the Wilderness (1810), had founded the frontier village of Cooperstown. James Fenimore Cooper describes his boyhood home, a bit of aristocracy on the fringe of the backwoods, in the first of his “Leather-Stocking Tales,” The Pioneers (1823), and with less sympathy, in Home as Found (1838). James Fenimore Cooper left college without graduating and spent several years aboard merchant ships and with the US Navy. From this came the books The Pilot (1823), and his scholarly and pioneering History of the Navy of the United States pf America (1839).
Her association with Alfred de Musset in an effort to “realize the ideal of Romantic love” inspired despairing notes in the poet’s verse. The criticism has a basis, but the idealizations are so consistent that they reveal the realty behind the idealized figures. Of the so-called “Romanesque” novels, the better known are Jean de la Roche (1860) and Le Marquis de Villemer(1861). George Sand wrote spontaneously, often without prearranged plan. In spite of this fault, her characters have a lifelike mobility which permits revealing development. In her descriptions of nature, accurate in detail and outline, her own personality is lyrically merged in the scene. V.Lucas translated and edited her Latters (1930), and M.J. Howe her Intimate Journal (1929).
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In the novels Valentine (1832), Lelia (1833), Jacques (1834), and Mauprat (1837), the human heart is frequently at grips with the conventions of society. Love is glorified as the eternal and exclusive passion, always hindered and handicapped by false social standards.
The mild and sentimental socialism of the decade 1840-1850 inspired Consuelo (1842-1843), Le meunier d’Angibault (1845), and Le peche’de Monsieur Antoine (1847), She was later accused of over-idealizing the peasants of her native Berry in her novels of country life, notably in Jeanne (1844), La Mare au Diable (1846), La petite Fadette (1849), Francois le Champi (1847), and Les Matres Sonneurs (1852).
Aurore Dupin was born in Paris in 1804, and spent her childhood at Nohant, in Barry. She studied for three years at the Convent des Anglaises in Paris, where she became involved in mysticism.
Returning to Nohant, she read Rousseau, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Chateaubriand, and other the-popular philosophers. When her marriage to born Dudevant ended in 1822, she returned to Paris to earn her living as a writer. She took the name George Sand as a nom de plume, because of her perception that women authors were not as marketable as men. Her novel Indiana (1832) first made famous the pseudonym she would use during 40 years of literary activity.
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He recovered what Puritans professed but seldom practiced, the spirit of piety, humility, and tragedy in the face of the inscrutable ways of God”, Hence in “The minister’s Black Veil”, “young Goodman Brown” Brown” and other stories, Hawthorne told of the universal sinfulness of mankind. In The Scarlet Letter, of the need by the sinner for both penance and penitence; in The Marble Faun, of the genesis of sin; and in other narratives, of other aspects of sin and its expiation.
To develop his themes, Hawthorne cultivated a unique technique. As a boy, he had become acquainted with the writings of some of the great allegorists. Basing his method on suggestions derived from his reading of these authors, he located his stories, as he said, “In a neutral territory, somewhere between the real work and fairy land, where the Actual and the Imaginary may meet and each imbue itself with the other.
This theme, like others, is based on beliefs derived from Hawthorne’s own experiences. Another interest of Hawthorne’s which is important in his fiction was in the nature of sin and atonement. . His Italian travels furnished details utilized in the Marble Faun (1860).
During a period when many intellectuals in New England were Unitarians or Transcendentalists, Hawthorne tended to find validity in beliefs which many of his contemporaries had rejected; the beliefs of his puritan ancestors. Although not a formal convert to Calvinism, this author, as Prof. Herbert W.Schneider remarked in the puritan Mind, “saw the empirical truth behind the Calvinist symbols.
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The year 1852 was the publication of a collection of tales, The Snow Image, and a book – length narrative, The Blithe dale Romance; the latter of which dealt in fictional from. Hawthorne’s memories and impressions of Brook farm. The same year, he wrote a campaign biography of his former collage mate, Franklin pierce. When pierce was elected to the presidency, he appointed Hawthorne as consul to Liverpool (1853-1857). Between 1857 and 1860, the author and his family traveled in Italy and resided in England
Noteworthy in Hawthorne’s tales and novels are certain themes and techniques. One theme frequently stressed is the undesirability of the isolation of the individual from his fellows.
Descended from an old New England family which had been in Massachusetts since 1630, Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts. His first book, Fans awe (1828), was a romantic fictional treatment based on his years at Bowdoin College. His short stories were collected and published in Twice – Told Tales (1837), only after Horatio Bridge had anteed that the publisher would not lose money by issuing the volume. They won little attention. The year this novel appeared, he and his family returned to “The Wayside” in Concord. Hawthorne died at Plymouth, New Hampshire, while on a trip with ex-president pierce.
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Edward’s son, Edward Robert Bulwer, First Earl of Lytton (1831-1891), was also an author and politician. Born in London and educated at Harrow, he wrote poetry under the name Owen Meredith, and earned a considerable literary reputation. Before succeeding to his father’s title in 1873, he had widespread diplomatic experience at Washington and throughout Europe. In 1876 he became viceroy of India, where his administration was notable for his diplomatic services in connection with the Afghan War and for his energetic campaign against famine. He became Earl of Lytton in 1880, and was appointed ambassador at Paris in 1887, where he died suddenly.
Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton eventually returned to parliament in 1852 as a Conservative, representing Hertfordshire until 1866, when he became Lard.
Lytton continued to write fiction, the most popular examples being Zanoni (1842), The Last of the Barons (1843), Lucretia (1847), Harold (1848), The Caxtons (1849), My Novel (1853), and Kenelm Chillingly (1873). Edward George Earle Lytton published several volumes of verse, notably the satiric New Timon (1846) and St. Stephen’s (1860), a romantic epic called King Arthur (1848-1849), and The Lost Tales of Miletus (1866). His best – known book was Lucile (1860), a long verse – narrative.
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Under Macready’s management, and to some extent under his guidance, Lytton brought out at Drury Lane his own poetical play, The Duchess of La Vallaire (1836), with but small success. This was followed by the romantic comedy The Lady of Lyons (1838), which had a continued success on the stage; Richelieu (1839), a very popular historical poetic drama, and Money (1840), which proved to be a highly remunerative comedy. Meanwhile, Lytton was achieving a reputation in the House of Commons, where he served as a Liberal member for St. Ives from 1831 to 1832 and for Lincoln from 1832 to 1841.
A novelist and politician, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton (later First Baron Lytton) was born in London and educated at Cambridge, were he won the Chancellor’s Medal for poetry. The first work that brought him into prominence was his novel Pelham, published anonymously in 1828. His subsequent successes, such as Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834), Rieni (1835), and Ernest Malt avers (1837), brought him success and renown under his own name. The Last Days of Pompeii and Rienzi revealed Lytton’s knack of holding the reader’s interest in archeological and historical novels.
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Different types and amounts of waste are generated by different sources, like homes, hospitals, factories and farms. I will discuss some of those wastes in this post. The waste produced by homes is called domestic waste. The type and the amount generated by a family depends upon its income and the place where it lives. For example, the waste generated by the urban town family contains a higher percentage of non-biodegradable waste than that generated by a rural family. The amount of waste generated by an urban family is also greater.
Natural resources are of two kinds. They are renewable and non-renewable. Resources which are replaced by natural processes are called renewable. Air, water and sunlight are renewable. They do not get over when we use them because nature replaces them. we use oxygen of the air, for example. And the natural process of photosynthesis replaces it. Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are those which cannot be replaced easily by the natural process, we run the risk of exhausting them if we use them up too fast. Fossil fuels, for example, took millions of years to form. If we over utilize them, we may run out of them because nature cannot replace them that fast.
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There are lot of inventions that are made by man. Among them, light takes an important place. When man invented lights, it lighted his life, his career, his profession, his development and everything that are in and around him.
Lights had taken lot of implementations and developments in itself according to the needs and necessities. Here we go for such lights which gives you not just light but more than light. When it comes to military, it directly deals with the safety and security of every citizens who lives in the country.
Lights make your life brighter, it removes dark from your environment. When darkness gets removed, then it means you are providing a road for success and you will be motivated to travel in it too. Do not wait any more. Check the ranges of lights, choose the best, let it enlighten your life.
What we create through our thoughts is a belief system, and that belief system will ultimately determines whether we live a successful life. The key to change our belief system is changing our thoughts. A successful man constantly picturing to himself, the success of his undertakings. He is backing up his vision through his efforts. By clinging to his vision with his vigorous resolution, persistent and determined endeavor, he is continually making himself a powerful magnet to draw his success
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Hacking refers to gaining access to another person’s computer. Special meaning given to the word access is the execution of the function of a computer. This captures direct or remote access without any physical contact with an individual computer. It includes viewing files, data and other secret information in the computer.
The devil is a representation of evil in all its forms. If you dreamed of the evil punishing you, then the dream is to tell you that you have reached the time to clear your mind and your guilty conscious secret. If you have won the fight against the evil, then all your troubles and the problems will be solved. If you have a friendly relationship with the evil, then it is time to have a complete medical workup done.
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1. Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires evaluation of many different factors:
2. Number and type of contacts - normally open, normally closed, changeover (double-throw)
3. In the case of changeover, there are two types. This style of relay can be manufactured two different ways. "Make before Break" and "Break before Make". The old style telephone switch required Make-before-break so that the connection didn't get dropped while dialing the number. The railroad still uses them to control railroad crossings.
4. Rating of contacts - small relays switch a few amperes, large contactors are rated for up to 3000 amperes, alternating or direct current
5. Voltage rating of contacts - typical control relays rated 300 VAC or 600 VAC, automotive types to 50 VDC, special high-voltage relays to about 15,000 V
6. Coil voltage - machine-tool relays usually 24 VAC or 120 VAC, relays for switchgear may have 125 V or 250 VDC coils, "sensitive" relays operate on a few mill amperes
7. Package/enclosure - open, touch-safe, double-voltage for isolation between circuits, explosion proof, outdoor, oil-splash resistant
8. Mounting - sockets, plug board, rail mount, panel mount, through-panel mount, enclosure for mounting on walls or equipment
9. Switching time - where high speed is required
10. "Dry" contacts - when switching very low level signals, special contact materials may be needed such as gold-plated contacts
11. Contact protection - suppress arcing in very inductive circuits
12. Coil protection - suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil current
13. Isolation between coil circuit and contacts
14. Aerospace or radiation-resistant testing, special quality assurance
15. Expected mechanical loads due to acceleration - some relays used in aerospace applications are designed to function in shock loads of 50 g or more
16. Accessories such as timers, auxiliary contacts, pilot lamps, test buttons
17. Regulatory approvals
18. Stray magnetic linkage between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit board.
RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communications Equipment (DCE); this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. The standard recommended but did not make mandatory the D-subminiature 25 pin connector. In general, terminals have male connectors with DTE pin functions, and modems have female connectors with DCE pin functions. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions.
Presence of a 25 pin D-sub connector does not necessarily indicate an RS-232C compliant interface. For example, on the original IBM PC, a male D-sub was an RS-232C DTE port (with a non-standard current loop interface on reserved pins), but the female D-sub connector was used for a parallel Centronics printer port. Some personal computers put non-standard voltages or signals on their serial ports.
The standard specifies 20 different signal connections. Since most devices use only a few signals, smaller connectors can be used. For example, the 9 pin DE-9 connector was used by most IBM-compatible PCs since the IBM PC AT, and has been standardized as TIA-574. More recently, modular connectors have been used. Most common are 8 pin RJ-45 connectors. Standard EIA/TIA 561 specifies a pin assignment, but the "Yost Serial Device Wiring Standard" invented by Dave Yost is common on Unix computers and newer devices from Cisco Systems. Many devices don't use either of these standards. 10 pin RJ-50 connectors can be found on some devices as well. Digital Equipment Corporation defined their own DECconnect connection system which was based on the Modified Modular Jack connector. This is a 6 pin modular jack where the key is offset from the center position. As with the Yost standard, DECconnect uses a symmetrical pin layout which enables the direct connection between two DTEs. Another common connector is the DH10 header connector common on motherboards and add-in cards which are usually converted via a cable to the more standard 9 pin DE-9 connector (and frequently mounted on a free slot plate or other part of the housing).
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In RS-232, data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is, signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.
Diagrammatic oscilloscope trace of voltage levels for ASCII "K" character (0x4b) with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts. The range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level; logic one is defined as a negative voltage, the signal condition is called marking, and has the functional significance of OFF. Logic zero is positive; the signal condition is spacing, and has the function ON. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts; signal levels of ±5 V, ±10 V, ±12 V, and ±15 V are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a device. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to +/-25 volts. The slew rate, or how fast the signal changes between levels, is also controlled.
Because the voltage levels are higher than logic levels typically used by integrated circuits, special intervening driver circuits are required to translate logic levels. These also protect the device's internal circuitry from short circuits or transients that may appear on the RS-232 interface, and provide sufficient current to comply with the slew rate requirements for data transmission.
Because both ends of the RS-232 circuit depend on the ground pin being zero volts, problems will occur when connecting machinery and computers where the voltage between the ground pin on one end and the ground pin on the other is not zero. This may also cause a hazardous ground loop.
Commonly-used signals are:
• Transmitted Data (TxD)
o Data sent from DTE to DCE.
• Received Data (RxD)
o Data sent from DCE to DTE.
• Request To Send (RTS)
o Asserted (set to 0) by DTE to prepare DCE to receive data. This may require action on the part of the DCE, e.g. transmitting a carrier or reversing the direction
• Clear To Send (CTS)
o Asserted by DCE to acknowledge RTS and allow DTE to transmit.
• Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
o Asserted by DTE to indicate that it is ready to be connected. If the DCE is a modem, this may "wake up" the modem, bringing it out of a power saving mode. This behavior is seen quite often in modern PSTN and GSM modems. When this signal is de-asserted, the modem may return to its standby mode, immediately hanging up any calls in progress.
• Data Set Ready (DSR)
o Asserted by DCE to indicate an active connection. If DCE is not a modem (e.g. a null modem cable or other equipment), this signal should be permanently asserted (set to 0), possibly by a jumper to another signal.
• Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
o Asserted by DCE when a connection has been established with remote equipment.
• Ring Indicator (RI)
o Asserted by DCE when it detects a ring signal from the telephone line.
• The standard defines RTS/CTS as the signaling protocol for flow control for data transmitted from DTE to DCE. The standard has no provision for flow control in the other direction. Various implementations of compatible ports may reassign other pins for flow control.
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