11:46 PM

make money online

Hello everybody, most of the people are losing their jobs today, due to the economic crisis in the world. Getting another job is also a very difficult task for the people as most of the companies are running in a very less marginal profit. As a result most people are trying for an alternative to their existing jobs. The first alternative that comes to everyone’s mind is the job that can be done through internet and online jobs. One of my friends lost his job recently because of this economic crisis. He tried another job for two months, but unable to get one, so he thought of doing online jobs till the recession gets over. I advised him to go to this money making online website to earn for his living. Now he is earning a lot through that money making website. As it is a online portal, you can use this website as a part time job also. They will provide you with the demo video of how to make money online through this website. They also have other tools which help you in making lots of money. You might think there are number of websites that helps people earning money online without much effort. The biggest advantage of this website is that, it ensures the money for your pocket. Another advantage is that, this website does not ask any registration fees from you, so that it makes you earn without any investment. do not hesitate to visit this website which will make you feel regret for missing a golden opportunity of making money online. I hope that this post would be useful for you and enjoy money making online. Once you start earning here, then you will advertise this website for the sake of other people as I did. Have a happy living.

12:19 AM

feel gifted...

Gifts play a vital role in making any occasion a beautiful one. An occasion could be made as the most memorable one by giving gifts to everyone. Gifts are always special and they promote a special feel between the person who is giving a gift and the person who is receiving it. You can easily become a special person to someone by surprising them by giving gifts to them. When we decide to gift someone, we will be put up in to confusion about the type of gift to give. Many people will get a dilemma about which gift to give. Some people might get reaction in the opposite way than the expected one since they give a gift which is never liked by the person who receives it.

Well, you are no longer needed to worry about choosing gifts and purchasing them. I have given the link of a web site, which will save you from gifting worries and make you lifted by providing numerous types of gifts with huge variety and good quality. No matter which gift you are searching for. If you are in search of gifts, then this is the place where you have to land yourself. You can get any types of gifts here. The designer gifts , anniversary gifts are to name a few from the list. In addition to all these, you can also go for special personalized gifts , which will make the receiver to get happiness and excitement to the extreme. To get additional information about the gifts and to get a better picture about it, you can visit the web site once and clarify all your doubts regarding gifts. This gift web site is a gift for us which makes our happy moments a gifted one.

12:19 AM

ALFRED TENNYSON:1

Alfred Tennyson was born in Somersby, a village in Lincolnshire, near the east coast of England, and took up poetry at Cambridge. During the early 1830s, there was a death of good poetry, so there was unusual critical interest in the works of younger poets such as Elizabeth Barrett and Tennyson. Tennyson’s collections, the Poems Chiefly Lyrical of 1830 and the Proems of 1832 (dated 1833), were exactingly reviewed. He published the two volumes of Poems of 1842 with which critics and public alike were impressed. The grave b blank verse and heroic mood of “Ulysses and brilliant word pictures and moral idealism of “Morte d’ Arthur” pointed forward to the Idylls of the King.

12:18 AM

over weight

The overweight problem gives more problems to us. It will affect us mentally and we will also lose our health from a good condition. With respect to health issues, we may get heart diseases, diabetes and many other problems which scare us all the time. We will be put up in to mental stress and depression because of the over weight. This is what the over weight makes us feel ill mentally. It is a very alarming problem on which we have to work hard and try to eliminate. Otherwise it will become as a global issue and this may lead to a global break down like the one which appeared recently in the world of economy. We should do something such that we can bring this problem in our control and save many people from becoming a victim of this over weight problem. It may be a slimming pill or some exercise or any thing. The result should lead us to a happier and healthier life.

10:23 AM

fix plumbing issues

Hi everybody, this post is regarding an online service which will makes your home better. Many services come through online today. Likewise, plumbing services also in to the show now. You can get Atlanta Plumber and San Diego Plumber through the web site which has been referred over here in this post. You can fix all kinds of plumbing issues by this company called Atlanta Plumbing. A home will remain sweet home when it has no problem in it. A home will turn sour when we get problems like electrical or plumbing issues. Make your home sweet by saving it from plumbing problems.

10:22 AM

VICTOR HUGO-4

Victor Hugo returning to France in 1871, he wrote Ninety Three (1873), a romance of the Revolution, and The Four Winds of the Spirit (1881), poems in lyrical, epic, satirical and dramatic form; being the best fruit of that almost juvenile productivity. A lover of children, he was revered as “the universal grandfather,” publishing The Art of Being a Grandfather in 1877.

Baudelaire acknowledge his supremacy, Alfred Tennyson called him “weird Titan, cloud-weaver of phantasmal hopes and fears,” and Andre Gide, the very antithesis of Hugo, had to confess: “Our greatest poet, alas!” and in later year withdrew the “alas!”

6:48 PM

golf ma passion

Let me ask you a question. What is the most favorite sports played by most of the people on their vacation and tour trips? You are absolutely right if your answer was Golf. Yes! Golf is the most favorite sports for many of the people in vacation. Like any one else, even I am very crazy about playing it. I love to play golf whenever I find free time. If I do not find a free time, I will make an adjustment with my works such that I get enough free time to play Golf. I am here to give you information about a web site which helps me in playing golfkurse in germany. This web site deals mainly with golf any anything and every thing that are related with golf. Few of their service includes Golfreisen sports holiday and also they do offer golf lessons from which you can learn the strategies and playing styles of golf. You can play golf peacefully in a small town called GutIsing, which is located at the wonderful and lovely banks of chiemsee, which is none other than the biggest lake which is located in Germany. The beautiful and peaceful environment will rejuvenate you and so you can play your most favorite sport with cool and relaxed mind. This will make your vacation and your game a most memorable event in the rest of your life. I have experienced it. I am sure that you will also get the same experience which I have experienced in the golf. In order to feel the experience, you have to play the golf. And to play golf under this environment, you have no other go other than approaching this web site and book your space for the tour and to play golf. In addition to this, you can stay in a 4 star hotel which is owned by this web site people. This hotel is located in the same place Gut Ising, which I have mentioned already.

6:47 PM

JAMES FENIMIRE COOPER-3

The History Provoked bitter controversy over its treatment of the Battle of Lake Erie. After the failure of his first novel, Precaution (1820), he turned out five romances on American themes, starting with The Spy (1821), to prove that America could write as well as read literature. His best work relies on his knowledge of the terrain of upstate New York and accounts of Native Americans.

By 1841, he was to work on familiar themes with The Pathfinder and The Deerslayer, which with The Prairie (1827), completed the life story of his wilderness-hunter Natty Bumppo, or Leather-Stocking.

6:46 PM

bizzing the business…

As every one of us know, business is the back bone of any country. It is the prime factor of economy of any country. Doing business is not an easy task. There are lots of works involved in doing a business. No matter how big or how small your business is, you have to do advertisements and create awareness about your business to make money. Here is a web site that helps you to promote your business. In this Business Blog, you can write about your business and make it grow by writing the Business Review on the business which you are involved in. This web site will take your business to places where hundreds of thousands of people are able to see and know about your business. Check out the web site to get more and more information and details about promoting your business. I hope this post would help you in finding the right solution for all your queries in business promotion.

6:45 PM

JAMES FENIMIRE COOPER-1

James Fenimore Cooper grew up in Lake Otsego, New York, where his father, Judge William Cooper, author of A Guide in the Wilderness (1810), had founded the frontier village of Cooperstown. James Fenimore Cooper describes his boyhood home, a bit of aristocracy on the fringe of the backwoods, in the first of his “Leather-Stocking Tales,” The Pioneers (1823), and with less sympathy, in Home as Found (1838). James Fenimore Cooper left college without graduating and spent several years aboard merchant ships and with the US Navy. From this came the books The Pilot (1823), and his scholarly and pioneering History of the Navy of the United States pf America (1839).

6:44 PM

GEORGE SAND 3

Her association with Alfred de Musset in an effort to “realize the ideal of Romantic love” inspired despairing notes in the poet’s verse. The criticism has a basis, but the idealizations are so consistent that they reveal the realty behind the idealized figures. Of the so-called “Romanesque” novels, the better known are Jean de la Roche (1860) and Le Marquis de Villemer(1861). George Sand wrote spontaneously, often without prearranged plan. In spite of this fault, her characters have a lifelike mobility which permits revealing development. In her descriptions of nature, accurate in detail and outline, her own personality is lyrically merged in the scene. V.Lucas translated and edited her Latters (1930), and M.J. Howe her Intimate Journal (1929).

4:30 PM

make friends...

One thing that can stop all the war that happens in every part of the world is making friends. This is the only choice to stop all the inhumanity that takes place in the world. Without chat we can not make friends. There fore, the wiccan chat helps you in getting new friends. In wiccan chat rooms, you can see innumerable people and make friends. The free wiccan chat rooms will make you rich in friends and also in communicational skill. Do chat more to take part more in the art of making friends and friendship. Let friendship gets spread all over the world.

4:30 PM

GEORGE SAND 2

In the novels Valentine (1832), Lelia (1833), Jacques (1834), and Mauprat (1837), the human heart is frequently at grips with the conventions of society. Love is glorified as the eternal and exclusive passion, always hindered and handicapped by false social standards.
The mild and sentimental socialism of the decade 1840-1850 inspired Consuelo (1842-1843), Le meunier d’Angibault (1845), and Le peche’de Monsieur Antoine (1847), She was later accused of over-idealizing the peasants of her native Berry in her novels of country life, notably in Jeanne (1844), La Mare au Diable (1846), La petite Fadette (1849), Francois le Champi (1847), and Les Matres Sonneurs (1852).
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4:26 PM

GEORGE SAND

Aurore Dupin was born in Paris in 1804, and spent her childhood at Nohant, in Barry. She studied for three years at the Convent des Anglaises in Paris, where she became involved in mysticism.
Returning to Nohant, she read Rousseau, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Chateaubriand, and other the-popular philosophers. When her marriage to born Dudevant ended in 1822, she returned to Paris to earn her living as a writer. She took the name George Sand as a nom de plume, because of her perception that women authors were not as marketable as men. Her novel Indiana (1832) first made famous the pseudonym she would use during 40 years of literary activity.

4:26 PM

communichat...

We have to communicate with others to get the stuff we need from others. Unless we communicate with others, we can not get the stuff which we need. The wiccan chat is one place, where we can communicate with the people who live all around the world. The wiccan chat rooms are the meeting place for all of us where we can meet new people every hour. It is a free service and so the chat rooms are a free wiccan chat rooms where you can hang out well and bring a new world of friendship to your own world. Make friendship alive through this web site.

4:26 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 4

He recovered what Puritans professed but seldom practiced, the spirit of piety, humility, and tragedy in the face of the inscrutable ways of God”, Hence in “The minister’s Black Veil”, “young Goodman Brown” Brown” and other stories, Hawthorne told of the universal sinfulness of mankind. In The Scarlet Letter, of the need by the sinner for both penance and penitence; in The Marble Faun, of the genesis of sin; and in other narratives, of other aspects of sin and its expiation.
To develop his themes, Hawthorne cultivated a unique technique. As a boy, he had become acquainted with the writings of some of the great allegorists. Basing his method on suggestions derived from his reading of these authors, he located his stories, as he said, “In a neutral territory, somewhere between the real work and fairy land, where the Actual and the Imaginary may meet and each imbue itself with the other.

4:26 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 3

This theme, like others, is based on beliefs derived from Hawthorne’s own experiences. Another interest of Hawthorne’s which is important in his fiction was in the nature of sin and atonement. . His Italian travels furnished details utilized in the Marble Faun (1860).

During a period when many intellectuals in New England were Unitarians or Transcendentalists, Hawthorne tended to find validity in beliefs which many of his contemporaries had rejected; the beliefs of his puritan ancestors. Although not a formal convert to Calvinism, this author, as Prof. Herbert W.Schneider remarked in the puritan Mind, “saw the empirical truth behind the Calvinist symbols.

4:26 PM

chat ya chat

I asked one of my friends about his views no chatting. He said lot of stuffs about chat. He also added a World Wide Web site called pagan chat where we can do chatting with people. According to my friend, chatting is the only means through which we can get in touch with people in the fast world we live in. The pagan chat rooms are similar to our rooms where we can find new people and create a new relationship called friendship. If you are lucky enough, then through this free pagan chat rooms, you can make relationships through friendship. The luck is yours.

3:52 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 2

The year 1852 was the publication of a collection of tales, The Snow Image, and a book – length narrative, The Blithe dale Romance; the latter of which dealt in fictional from. Hawthorne’s memories and impressions of Brook farm. The same year, he wrote a campaign biography of his former collage mate, Franklin pierce. When pierce was elected to the presidency, he appointed Hawthorne as consul to Liverpool (1853-1857). Between 1857 and 1860, the author and his family traveled in Italy and resided in England
Noteworthy in Hawthorne’s tales and novels are certain themes and techniques. One theme frequently stressed is the undesirability of the isolation of the individual from his fellows.
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3:52 PM

NATHANNIEL HAWTHORNE 1804-1864

Descended from an old New England family which had been in Massachusetts since 1630, Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts. His first book, Fans awe (1828), was a romantic fictional treatment based on his years at Bowdoin College. His short stories were collected and published in Twice – Told Tales (1837), only after Horatio Bridge had anteed that the publisher would not lose money by issuing the volume. They won little attention. The year this novel appeared, he and his family returned to “The Wayside” in Concord. Hawthorne died at Plymouth, New Hampshire, while on a trip with ex-president pierce.

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3:50 PM

Get loans at ease…

Money is the important need for every individual in the world. Sometimes people need money in emergency situations. In such situations, people struggle a lot to get the money to meet their needs. Loan is one of the option, people use to choose in emergency situations. Getting a loan in today’s scenario is very difficult task. Getting a loan without any property is impossible yesterday, but it is possible today through personal loans. They have unsecured personal loans, which is provided to the borrower without any security. The unsecured loan is not only provided for the personal use, it is also being provided for small and big business. The limit for the unsecured personal loan is one hundred thousand dollars. Installment loans are provided as the loan to buy the automobiles too. You can repay the loans monthly wise and the interest is also very less compared to other banks. If you are in urgent need of money, you can reach here to get the money. Have a joyful life.

3:48 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 3

Edward’s son, Edward Robert Bulwer, First Earl of Lytton (1831-1891), was also an author and politician. Born in London and educated at Harrow, he wrote poetry under the name Owen Meredith, and earned a considerable literary reputation. Before succeeding to his father’s title in 1873, he had widespread diplomatic experience at Washington and throughout Europe. In 1876 he became viceroy of India, where his administration was notable for his diplomatic services in connection with the Afghan War and for his energetic campaign against famine. He became Earl of Lytton in 1880, and was appointed ambassador at Paris in 1887, where he died suddenly.

3:48 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 2

Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton eventually returned to parliament in 1852 as a Conservative, representing Hertfordshire until 1866, when he became Lard.
Lytton continued to write fiction, the most popular examples being Zanoni (1842), The Last of the Barons (1843), Lucretia (1847), Harold (1848), The Caxtons (1849), My Novel (1853), and Kenelm Chillingly (1873). Edward George Earle Lytton published several volumes of verse, notably the satiric New Timon (1846) and St. Stephen’s (1860), a romantic epic called King Arthur (1848-1849), and The Lost Tales of Miletus (1866). His best – known book was Lucile (1860), a long verse – narrative.



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3:47 PM

Fun in internet…

Hi everybody, very good morning to you all. If you have an internet connection, then nothing is impossible. You can get everything, from money to friends. Yesterday, while surfing the internet for some entertainment, I found pagan chat rooms. This is the website to chat online around the world. All you need is just to register yourself in this website. The registration is completely free in free pagan chat rooms and once the registration process is complete, you can start chatting. The chat time is unlimited in pagan chat rooms, so you can have an unlimited fun and entertainment in pagan chat rooms. Have a nice time.

3:46 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 1

Under Macready’s management, and to some extent under his guidance, Lytton brought out at Drury Lane his own poetical play, The Duchess of La Vallaire (1836), with but small success. This was followed by the romantic comedy The Lady of Lyons (1838), which had a continued success on the stage; Richelieu (1839), a very popular historical poetic drama, and Money (1840), which proved to be a highly remunerative comedy. Meanwhile, Lytton was achieving a reputation in the House of Commons, where he served as a Liberal member for St. Ives from 1831 to 1832 and for Lincoln from 1832 to 1841.
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3:43 PM

EDWARD BULWER-LYTTON 1803-1873

A novelist and politician, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton (later First Baron Lytton) was born in London and educated at Cambridge, were he won the Chancellor’s Medal for poetry. The first work that brought him into prominence was his novel Pelham, published anonymously in 1828. His subsequent successes, such as Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834), Rieni (1835), and Ernest Malt avers (1837), brought him success and renown under his own name. The Last Days of Pompeii and Rienzi revealed Lytton’s knack of holding the reader’s interest in archeological and historical novels.
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7:40 PM

clean the colons

Health is wealth is an old proverb, but the most needed proverb for today’s people. Everyone in the world is suffering from various health problems. Some people will take proper care of their body and will lead a healthy life, while others are careless and are being affected by diseases. Stomach Colon is one most common health problem that all the people ignore to take care of, but the specialists are advising the people to care proper care of this problem in the initial stage itself. I also had the same problem, so before consulting a doctor I would like to know about the problem. In Google I searched about the problem and found an interesting website, which gives the reviews about the colon cleansers available in the markets. colon cleanser reviews have rated the products based on ten criteria and in the review all the merits and also the side effects are told to the customers.

7:37 PM

Sources of waste.

Different types and amounts of waste are generated by different sources, like homes, hospitals, factories and farms. I will discuss some of those wastes in this post. The waste produced by homes is called domestic waste. The type and the amount generated by a family depends upon its income and the place where it lives. For example, the waste generated by the urban town family contains a higher percentage of non-biodegradable waste than that generated by a rural family. The amount of waste generated by an urban family is also greater.

7:27 PM

Effects of over utilization

Natural resources are of two kinds. They are renewable and non-renewable. Resources which are replaced by natural processes are called renewable. Air, water and sunlight are renewable. They do not get over when we use them because nature replaces them. we use oxygen of the air, for example. And the natural process of photosynthesis replaces it. Non-renewable resources, on the other hand, are those which cannot be replaced easily by the natural process, we run the risk of exhausting them if we use them up too fast. Fossil fuels, for example, took millions of years to form. If we over utilize them, we may run out of them because nature cannot replace them that fast.

5:03 PM

for singles...

It is becoming very rare to see a good web site now a day. Such a rare occasion occurred recently. Yes, I saw a very good web site which offers us the service for all the Gothic Singles and Gothic Personals who live all over the world. The service is none other than the Gothic Dating service, which is the hottest trend in today’s world. Using this web site as a medium, you can meet up thousands of people across the world and blow about you to the world. As I said earlier in this same post, it is very rare to find a good web site where you can share any thing and every thing about you. Since we have got one, do it without any delays. Hope you would have heard the saying, time and tide will wait for those who actively work. Be one and have fun in this World Wide Web site.

7:54 PM

lets light up...

There are lot of inventions that are made by man. Among them, light takes an important place. When man invented lights, it lighted his life, his career, his profession, his development and everything that are in and around him.

Lights had taken lot of implementations and developments in itself according to the needs and necessities. Here we go for such lights which gives you not just light but more than light. When it comes to military, it directly deals with the safety and security of every citizens who lives in the country.


Lights make your life brighter, it removes dark from your environment. When darkness gets removed, then it means you are providing a road for success and you will be motivated to travel in it too. Do not wait any more. Check the ranges of lights, choose the best, let it enlighten your life.

2:00 PM

Power of positive beliefs

What we create through our thoughts is a belief system, and that belief system will ultimately determines whether we live a successful life. The key to change our belief system is changing our thoughts. A successful man constantly picturing to himself, the success of his undertakings. He is backing up his vision through his efforts. By clinging to his vision with his vigorous resolution, persistent and determined endeavor, he is continually making himself a powerful magnet to draw his success

11:36 AM

get a life partner

Love is a pure form of affection and caring that is very hard to get. In today’s busy world we do not have the time to show our care and affection for others, but simply we call them as our loved ones just in words. This post of mine will help those people, who need a lover to truly love them. Emo singles is the website that allows its users to meet different kinds of people around the world and chat. Most of the people using Emo personals website has got the person they want. Their testimonial says that they are leading a very happy life. Do you feel interested to use this website? Then, do not hesitate. Just visit Emo dating and register yourself for free. Then it is all yours. You can chat with anyone of your interest. I had a nice experience there. Just come and have lots and lots of fun.

11:36 AM

Hacking

Hacking refers to gaining access to another person’s computer. Special meaning given to the word access is the execution of the function of a computer. This captures direct or remote access without any physical contact with an individual computer. It includes viewing files, data and other secret information in the computer.

11:29 AM

Devil in a dream

The devil is a representation of evil in all its forms. If you dreamed of the evil punishing you, then the dream is to tell you that you have reached the time to clear your mind and your guilty conscious secret. If you have won the fight against the evil, then all your troubles and the problems will be solved. If you have a friendly relationship with the evil, then it is time to have a complete medical workup done.

10:47 AM

a place for Gothic

Hi every body. Hope all are getting ready to have fun in the week end holidays. I wish you the same for you. Let me put up things in simpler way so that you get the content of this post directly without getting in to the useless context. I feel that it will be good if I share it with you. If you are one among Gothic Singles and if you are in need of Gothic Personals for Gothic Dating, you can view the web site here and get in touch with other Gothic people who live across the globe. It is a great place for all the gothic people to chat, meet, and share views and ideas. If you are looking for chatting and dating with gothic people, then without any other second option, you can go to this web site and make your thing get done over there. Check it and have fun. Technology is to have fun and nothing else.

10:47 AM

Relay application considerations

1. Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires evaluation of many different factors:
2. Number and type of contacts - normally open, normally closed, changeover (double-throw)
3. In the case of changeover, there are two types. This style of relay can be manufactured two different ways. "Make before Break" and "Break before Make". The old style telephone switch required Make-before-break so that the connection didn't get dropped while dialing the number. The railroad still uses them to control railroad crossings.
4. Rating of contacts - small relays switch a few amperes, large contactors are rated for up to 3000 amperes, alternating or direct current
5. Voltage rating of contacts - typical control relays rated 300 VAC or 600 VAC, automotive types to 50 VDC, special high-voltage relays to about 15,000 V
6. Coil voltage - machine-tool relays usually 24 VAC or 120 VAC, relays for switchgear may have 125 V or 250 VDC coils, "sensitive" relays operate on a few mill amperes
7. Package/enclosure - open, touch-safe, double-voltage for isolation between circuits, explosion proof, outdoor, oil-splash resistant
8. Mounting - sockets, plug board, rail mount, panel mount, through-panel mount, enclosure for mounting on walls or equipment
9. Switching time - where high speed is required
10. "Dry" contacts - when switching very low level signals, special contact materials may be needed such as gold-plated contacts
11. Contact protection - suppress arcing in very inductive circuits
12. Coil protection - suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil current
13. Isolation between coil circuit and contacts
14. Aerospace or radiation-resistant testing, special quality assurance
15. Expected mechanical loads due to acceleration - some relays used in aerospace applications are designed to function in shock loads of 50 g or more
16. Accessories such as timers, auxiliary contacts, pilot lamps, test buttons
17. Regulatory approvals
18. Stray magnetic linkage between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit board.

10:47 AM

Connectors

RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or Data Communications Equipment (DCE); this defines at each device which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. The standard recommended but did not make mandatory the D-subminiature 25 pin connector. In general, terminals have male connectors with DTE pin functions, and modems have female connectors with DCE pin functions. Other devices may have any combination of connector gender and pin definitions.
Presence of a 25 pin D-sub connector does not necessarily indicate an RS-232C compliant interface. For example, on the original IBM PC, a male D-sub was an RS-232C DTE port (with a non-standard current loop interface on reserved pins), but the female D-sub connector was used for a parallel Centronics printer port. Some personal computers put non-standard voltages or signals on their serial ports.

The standard specifies 20 different signal connections. Since most devices use only a few signals, smaller connectors can be used. For example, the 9 pin DE-9 connector was used by most IBM-compatible PCs since the IBM PC AT, and has been standardized as TIA-574. More recently, modular connectors have been used. Most common are 8 pin RJ-45 connectors. Standard EIA/TIA 561 specifies a pin assignment, but the "Yost Serial Device Wiring Standard" invented by Dave Yost is common on Unix computers and newer devices from Cisco Systems. Many devices don't use either of these standards. 10 pin RJ-50 connectors can be found on some devices as well. Digital Equipment Corporation defined their own DECconnect connection system which was based on the Modified Modular Jack connector. This is a 6 pin modular jack where the key is offset from the center position. As with the Yost standard, DECconnect uses a symmetrical pin layout which enables the direct connection between two DTEs. Another common connector is the DH10 header connector common on motherboards and add-in cards which are usually converted via a cable to the more standard 9 pin DE-9 connector (and frequently mounted on a free slot plate or other part of the housing).

9:24 AM

Bikers chat...

This time I would like to share a news about a web site to the people who would like to have adventures in their life. I hope this post would help them a lot. If you are a biker and you are looking for a place to meet and chat with other bikers, then I have a web site for you that will make your wish come true. In the web site which I am going to give you contains the features like Biker Dating where Biker Singles can meet up and hang out where ever they want. There are thousands of Biker Personals waiting in this web site and you can have all the fun under one single roof of this web site. Check out this web site once and then you will understand what I am talking about. This web site will be the solution for all your meeting and chatting needs. Have the adventure in this web site like all the bikers do.

9:23 AM

Standard details

In RS-232, data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control circuit only operates in one direction that is, signaling from a DTE to the attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner, supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.

Voltage levels


Diagrammatic oscilloscope trace of voltage levels for ASCII "K" character (0x4b) with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit
The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical one and logical zero levels. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts. The range near zero volts is not a valid RS-232 level; logic one is defined as a negative voltage, the signal condition is called marking, and has the functional significance of OFF. Logic zero is positive; the signal condition is spacing, and has the function ON. The standard specifies a maximum open-circuit voltage of 25 volts; signal levels of ±5 V, ±10 V, ±12 V, and ±15 V are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a device. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to +/-25 volts. The slew rate, or how fast the signal changes between levels, is also controlled.
Because the voltage levels are higher than logic levels typically used by integrated circuits, special intervening driver circuits are required to translate logic levels. These also protect the device's internal circuitry from short circuits or transients that may appear on the RS-232 interface, and provide sufficient current to comply with the slew rate requirements for data transmission.
Because both ends of the RS-232 circuit depend on the ground pin being zero volts, problems will occur when connecting machinery and computers where the voltage between the ground pin on one end and the ground pin on the other is not zero. This may also cause a hazardous ground loop.

9:19 AM

Signals

Commonly-used signals are:
• Transmitted Data (TxD)
o Data sent from DTE to DCE.
• Received Data (RxD)
o Data sent from DCE to DTE.
• Request To Send (RTS)
o Asserted (set to 0) by DTE to prepare DCE to receive data. This may require action on the part of the DCE, e.g. transmitting a carrier or reversing the direction
• Clear To Send (CTS)
o Asserted by DCE to acknowledge RTS and allow DTE to transmit.
• Data Terminal Ready (DTR)
o Asserted by DTE to indicate that it is ready to be connected. If the DCE is a modem, this may "wake up" the modem, bringing it out of a power saving mode. This behavior is seen quite often in modern PSTN and GSM modems. When this signal is de-asserted, the modem may return to its standby mode, immediately hanging up any calls in progress.
• Data Set Ready (DSR)
o Asserted by DCE to indicate an active connection. If DCE is not a modem (e.g. a null modem cable or other equipment), this signal should be permanently asserted (set to 0), possibly by a jumper to another signal.
• Data Carrier Detect (DCD)
o Asserted by DCE when a connection has been established with remote equipment.
• Ring Indicator (RI)
o Asserted by DCE when it detects a ring signal from the telephone line.
• The standard defines RTS/CTS as the signaling protocol for flow control for data transmitted from DTE to DCE. The standard has no provision for flow control in the other direction. Various implementations of compatible ports may reassign other pins for flow control.

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